How to Put Cash In Your Pocket

Free Publications.
How to:





The Job Outlook

Planning Your Time

Determining Your Job Skills

Where to Get Job Information

Cover Letters and Letters of Application

Preparing Your Resumé



After The Interview

Job Search Checklist

Books That Can Give You More Tips
for Finding the Right Job

Chapter 1 Introduction

YOU NEED A JOB. Somewhere, an employer has the job you want. How do you get that job?
By marketing your job talents. By showing employers you have the skills they need.

Do you have job talents? YES! Homemakers, disabled individuals, veterans, students just out of
school, people already working all have skills and experience for many good jobs.

What you need to know is how to market your talents effectively to find the right job. This book
will help you to:

Evaluate your interests and skills.
Find job information.
Write resumes and application letters.
Prepare for job interviews
Plan your time.
Take tests.


"There is nothing permanent except change."
Even though this was an observation of the ancient Greek Heraclitus, it aptly describes this
century as well. Consumer demand, technology, and business practices are constantly evolving.

Occupations that once offered solid careers are in decline, while positions once unheard of are
now among the fastest growing. In today's marketplace, it is increasingly important for people
who are planning their careers to be aware of what occupations will be in demand in the future.
The economy is projected to increase. Opportunities for good paying jobs are expected to
be on the rise.

Top 10 fastest growing jobs (2014-2015).

1. Network systems and data communications analyst
6. Database administrator
2. Physician assistant
7. Physical therapist
3. Computer software engineer, applications
8. Medical scientist
4. Computer software engineer, systems software
9. Occupational therapist
5. Network and computer systems administrator
10. College instructor


The next few pages discuss factors that affect an occupation's employment outlook, describe the
assumptions used in making the projections, and point out general trends.

Why Employment Changes

Any projection of employment growth is clouded by uncertainty. Unforeseen changes in
technology or the balance of trade or major international political upheavals could radically alter
future employment for individual occupations

This section gives a brief overview of projected employment change. It focuses on the following clusters of
occupations based on the Federal Government's Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Professional specialty occupations,
Technicians and related support occupations, Marketing and sales occupations, Administrative
support occupations including clerical, Service occupations, Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related occupations, Mechanics, installers, and repairers, Construction trades occupations,
Production occupations, Transportation and material moving occupations, Handlers, equipment
cleaners, helpers, and laborers.

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Workers in executive, administrative,
and managerial occupations establish policies, make plans, determine staffing requirements, and
direct the activities of businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. This group
includes managerial and administrative workers, such as financial managers, purchasers and
buyers, education administrators, funeral directors, food service and hotel managers, and
property and real estate managers. It also includes management support occupations that provide
technical assistance to managers. Some examples include accountant and auditor, budget
analyst, loan officer, purchasing agent, and underwriter.

Overall, employment of executive, administrative, and managerial occupations is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. However, because these workers are
employed throughout the economy, differences in the rate of expansion for individual industries
will produce varying rates of employment change for particular kinds of managers and support
workers. For example, employment of health services managers will grow much faster than
average, whereas industrial production managers are expected to decline.

Due to the large amount of competition for these jobs, job seekers with previous work
experience, specialized training, or graduate study have a definite advantage. Computer skills
will continue to be an asset as more managers rely on computerized information systems to help
direct their organizations.

Professional specialty occupations.
Professional workers provide an array of services, conduct research, and are employed in
a variety of industries. This group includes engineers; architects and surveyors; computer,
mathematical, and operations research occupations; life, physical, and social scientists;
social, recreational, and religious workers; teachers, librarians, and counselors; health diagnosing,
assessment, and treating occupations; and communications, visual and performing arts occupations.

This group also is projected to add the largest number of jobs of any occupational group. However,
growth rates for individual occupations are as diverse as the jobs these workers perform. Because
most new jobs will be in the education, business, and health services industries, occupations such as
physical therapist, human services worker, operations research analyst, and computer scientist
and systems analyst are expected to have gorth. Others, such as meteorologists, mining and nuclear
engineers, and dentists should grow more slowly than average.

Technicians and related support occupations.
These workers program and operate technical equipment and assist engineers, scientists,
physicians, and other professional workers. This group includes Network systems and data
communications analyst, health technologists and technicians, engineering and science
technicians, computer programmers, aircraft pilots, air traffic controllers, paralegal, broadcast
technicians, and library technicians.

Although overall employment is expected to grow, changes in technology, demographics,
and ways of conducting business will cause some of these occupations to grow faster than
others. This group includes Network systems and data communications analyst, Its growth
will result in part from the increasing reliance on computers and computer networks.
Increased demand for health services from a growing and aging population will spur growth
for radiological technologists, medical record technicians, surgical technologists, and
electroneurodiagnostic technologists. Employment growth in other occupations in this group
will be limited. For example, employment of drafters should show little change, and broadcast
technicians should decline due to laborsaving devices and technological advances.

Marketing and sales occupations.
Workers in this group sell goods and services, purchase commodities and property for resale,
and stimulate consumer interest. This group includes cashiers; counter and rental clerks;
insurance agents and brokers; manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives; real
estate agents, brokers, and appraisers; retail sales workers; financial services sales
representatives; and travel agents.

Employment is expected to grow as fast as average because of the increased demand for
financial, travel, and other services. However, the rate of growth should be slower than over
previous years because these workers are concentrated in wholesale and retail trade, an
industry which will grow more slowly than in the past.

A large number of part-time and full-time positions are expected to be available for cashiers and
retail trade sales workers due to employment growth and, more importantly, the large size and
high turnover of these occupations. Higher paying sales occupations, such as securities and
financial services sales worker, are more competitive than retail sales occupations. Job
opportunities will be best for well-trained, personable, and ambitious people who enjoy selling.

Administrative support occupations including clerical. Workers in this group prepare and
record memos, letters, and reports; collect accounts; gather and distribute information; operate
office machines; and handle other administrative tasks. The group includes such occupations as
adjuster, investigator, and collector in the insurance industry; computer and communications
equipment operator; information clerk; postal clerk and mail carrier; secretary; bank teller; and
typist, word processor, and data entry key person.

This occupational group will continue to employ a number of workers, although little
change in employment is expected. As a result, these occupations will decline as a proportion of
total employment. Despite the tremendous increase expected in the volume of clerical
tasks to be done, increased automation and other technological changes will cause a decline in
such occupations as typist, word processor, and data entry, bookkeeping, accounting,
and auditing clerk; and telephone operator. In contrast, the occupation of teacher aide should
grow faster than average as schools increase their use of these workers.

Because many administrative support occupations are large and have relatively high turnover,
opportunities should be plentiful for full- and part-time jobs, even in slow growing occupations.

Service occupations.
This group includes a wide range of workers in four subgroups: Protective; food and beverage
preparation; health; and personal, private household, and cleaning and building services.
The group includes protective service occupations such as firefighter, police officer, detective,
and guard; food preparation occupations such as chef, cook, baker, bartender, and waiter;
health service occupations such as dental assistant and occupational and physical therapy assistant;
and personal service occupations such as home health aide, cosmetologist, and child-care worker.

These occupations, as a group, are expected to grow because of a growing population and economy.

Because of growing concern over crime, the employment of police, detectives, and special agents
is expected to rise. As the number of prisoners and correctional facilities increases, more correctional
officers also will be needed. Average employment growth is expected for firefighters.

Full- and part-time jobs will be available for food preparation and service workers due to the
large size, high turnover, and overall average employment of this group.

Among health services occupations, physician assistant-one of the fastest growing occupations in
the economy-and nursing aide, orderly, and attendant will grow response to the aging population.
Growth in personal service, cleaning, and private household workers will vary widely.
Homemaker-home health aide should be one of the fastest growing occupations, in part because
of the substantial increase in the elderly population. Private household workers, on the other
hand, will decline due to the shift from home to institutional child care.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations.
Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise animals, and catch fish.
Some occupations include farm operator, fisher, hunter, and trapper; gardener and
groundskeeper; and forest and conservation worker.

Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world's population
grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of small
farms are expected to contribute to employment declines in most of these occupations. The
employment of farmers is expected to decline, reflecting greater productivity; on the
other hand, the need for skilled lawn service managers should result in faster than average

Mechanics, installers, and repairers.
Workers in this group adjust, maintain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment,
computers, and many other types of machinery. Occupations include electronic equipment
repairer, aircraft, automotive, and motorcycle mechanic; millwright; musical instrument repairer;
rigger; and marine mechanic wih an average growth of 21%. Fewer opportunities in retail are
expected to be offset by the need for mechanics who can repair sophisticated equipment.

Average overall growth is expected due to the continued importance of mechanical and
electronic equipment throughout the economy, but projections vary by occupation. Data
processing equipment repairer is expected to be a growing occupation in this group,
reflecting the increased use of these machines. In sharp contrast, communications equipment
mechanic, installer, and repairer and telephone installer and repairer are expected to decline in
employment due to laborsaving advances.

Construction trades occupations.
Workers in this group construct, alter, and maintain buildings and other structures. Occupations
include carpenter, electrician, roofer, drywall worker, carpet installer, and plumber.

Many new jobs will be in construction. An increase in the number of households and industrial
plants, the desire to alter or modernize existing structures, and the need to maintain
and repair highways, drains, and bridges will result in average employment growth in
construction. Because the construction industry is sensitive to fluctuations in the Nation's
economy, employment in construction occupations varies from year to year. Many construction
workers become unemployed during downturns in construction activity.

Production occupations.
These workers set up, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and use hand tools and hand-held
power tools to make goods and assemble products. Occupations include blue-collar worker
supervisor, press operator, precision assembler, and stationary engineer.

Increases in imports, overseas production, and automation-including robotics and advanced
computer techniques-will result in little change in overall employment. However, growth is
expected for electronic pagination systems workers, cabinetmakers and bench carpenters, wood
machinists, and water treatment plant operators.

Many production occupations are sensitive to fluctuations in the business cycle and competition
from imports. When factory orders decline, workers face shortened workweeks, layoffs, and
plant closings.

Transportation and material moving occupations.
Operating the equipment used to move people and materials is the principle activity of workers
in this group. Occupations include bus driver, rail and water transportation worker, subway
and streetcar operator, and truck driver. Overall employment is expected to grow about as fast
as average, but prospects vary by occupation. School bus driver and truck driver are expected
to grow as fast as the average, but water transportation worker will change little. Slower than
average growth is expected in the employment of material moving equipment operators because
of the increased use of automated material handling systems.

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.
These workers perform routine tasks and assist skilled workers. Some of these workers are
helpers in construction trades, parking lot attendants, and service station attendants.

What types of occupations provide the most access to employee benefits?
Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) show that workers in the management,
professional, and related occupations were the most likely to have access to these benefits.

Employers usually offer employee benefits in addition to salaries as a way to attract and retain
workers. Common types of benefits include retirement or pension plans, medical plans, life
insurance coverage, paid sick leave, and paid vacation. Access, in this case, is defined as the
employee being offered the benefit by his or her employer, regardless of whether the employee
chooses to participate. Paid vacation time, retirement plans, and medical plans were the most
accessible benefits for all occupational groups. Life insurance benefits and paid sick leave
were among the least accessible for most occupational groups. Also, overall, workers in
service occupations had the lowest access to employee benefits.

Overall employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations,
although some occupations, such as machine feeder, will decline due to automation. Many
opportunities will arise from the need to replace workers who leave these occupations because
turnover is very high. However, economic turndowns may substantially lower the number of
openings, particularly for construction laborer and other occupations in industries that are highly
sensitive to changes in the economy.

"The Job Outlook in Brief"
provides thumbnail sketches of employment data for each occupation in the
Occupational Outlook Handbook, Nearly all employment estimates are from the BLS industry-
occupation matrix. Employment growth rates are compared to the average for all occupations.

Assessing the degree of competition is difficult, although it can be done with some accuracy for
occupations with lengthy training and strict entry requirements. However, because most
occupations have several routes of entry and flexible requirements, the potential supply of
workers is difficult to measure. For many occupations, therefore, no description of job
opportunities or competition is given. When given, the description of the relationship between
supply and demand is based on information obtained from technical journals and other relevant
literature, interviews with occupational experts, historical data, and the judgment of the analyst
who studied the occupation.

Growth in employment is only one source of job openings. In fact, BLS projects that 63 percent
of all job openings will arise because of the need to replace workers who transfer to other
occupations or leave the labor force. As a result, even occupations with slower than average
growth may offer many jobs for new workers; this is especially true of large occupations.

Beyond the "Brief"

"The Job Outlook in Brief" is only a starting point for the exploration of economic projections or
careers. The projections in it were produced by BLS as part of its employment projections
program, which develops new sets of projections every 2 years. Besides occupational
employment, BLS also projects industry employment, industry outlook, labor force activity, and
numerous components of the gross domestic product. This information is available in a variety
of publications designed to meet different needs.

Employment Outlook provides additional highlights and details on BLS projections,
a discussion of industries and occupations generating the largest portion of projected job growth,
implications of employment growth on education and training requirements, and the implication
of growth on the quality of jobs as measured by earnings.
"The Job Outlook in Brief" provides information in a format that allows easy comparison of job
prospects in different fields. But employment prospects are not the only consideration when
choosing a certain career; matching your goals and abilities to the work done on the job and the
education required is another important part of choosing a career. Where you want to live and
how much money you want to earn also are important. Information like this appears in the
Handbook and the Occupational Outlook Quarterly

The Handbook has been published over 50 years. It contains more about the outlook for each of
the occupations in the "Brief," as well as information about the nature of the work, training and
personal qualifications, earnings, and other subjects. Originally published in the Fall 1992 OOQ,
"Matching Yourself With the World of Work in 1992" is a 20-page, tabular presentation similar
in format to the "Brief." Rather than outlook, it highlights significant job characteristics,
including educational level required, working conditions, and interaction with data, people, and

Additional information on job growth is also available from State job service offices. The
outlook for many occupations varies considerably among local job markets. For example,
sections of the country with slow population growth have less need for elementary school
teachers than regions with high growth. State job service offices, listed in the State Government
section of local telephone directories, can provide information on local labor market conditions.
Also, see the section on "Sources of Career Information" in the Handbook.

Ordering Information

BLS publications are usually available in libraries, career centers, and the offices of school and
employment counselors. They may also be available on line.They are sold by the Government
Printing Office.
Send orders to:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Publication Sales Center P.O. Box 2145, Chicago, IL 60690
Phone (312) 353-1880

Payment by check, money order, VISA, MasterCard, or GPO deposit account must accompany
your order. Make check or money order payable to the Superintendent of Documents.

Planning Your Time

NOW is the best time to start looking for a job. You're as qualified as other applicants, so start
now before someone else gets "your" job.

You've already made a good start by reading this book! What's the most important thing to know
about your job search?
That means in a full time job, you:

A. Have responsibilities (work duties and procedures)

B. "Punch a clock" or be at work "on time"

C. Work hard all day, 40 hours week

D. Report to a boss, who makes sure you carry-out your responsibilitie

To find a job, you must:

A. Set your own responsibilities (things you must do everyday to get a job).

B. Wake up early at a set time to start looking for work.

C. Look hard for a job, all day, 40 hours a week.

D. Be your own boss (or appoint a friend to be your "boss") to make sure you carry-out your
job search responsibilities.

Tips for Planning an Effective Job Search:

Make a "To Do List" every day. Outline daily activities to look for a job.

Apply for jobs early in the day. This will make a good impression and give you time to
complete applications, have interviews, take tests, etc.

Call employers to find out the best times to apply. Some companies take applications only
on certain days and times during the week.

Write down all employers you contact, the date of your contacts, people you talk to, and
special notes about your contacts.

Apply at several companies in the same area when possible. This saves time and money.

Be prepared. Have a "master application" and resumes, pens, maps and job information
with you all the time. Who knows when a "hot lead" will come your way.

Follow up leads immediately. If you find out about a job late in the day, call right then!
Don't wait until the next day.

Network. Tell everyone you know that you are looking for job. Stay in touch with friends
and contacts. Follow up new leads immediately.

Read pamphlets and books on how to get a job (see the list of books at the back of this
brochure). The time you spend reading these materials will save you a lot of time in your
job search.

Make automated connections through systems on the Internet, such as America's Job
Bank and the Talent Bank

Determining Your Job Skills

Another tip for finding the right job is to make a list of your background and experience.
If you think you don't have any experience -- THINK AGAIN! You may not have specific job
experience, but you do have work experience. You have "worked" as a homemaker, a student, a
volunteer, in a hobby or some other personal activity. The skills you use for these "jobs" can be
applied to other jobs.

A background and experience list may help you to:

¨ Fill out job applications
¨ Provide information for job interviews
¨ Prepare resumes (if you're applying for professional or office jobs)

Tips for Making a Background and Experience List:

Interests and Aptitudes

List your hobbies, clubs you belong to, sports you're involved in, church and school activities,
and things that interest you. List things you are good at or have special ability for. Your list may
look like it has nothing to do with job skills or experience. That's O.K. the purpose of this list is
to make you think about your interests and things you do in everyday life. Look at the first item
on your list. Think about the skills or talents it takes to do that item. Really think about it! All
hobbies, activities, etc., take a lot of skills, knowledge and abilities. Write them all down.

Here are some examples:

Hobbies, Sports, School Activities Skills, Knowledge, Abilities and Talents
Things I Do Well: It take to do these things:

Playing Basketball Ability to interact with others (“be a team player”)
Ability to use basic arithmetic (keep track of score)
Ability to reach, lift, jump, stoop, and run
Skills in directing others (calling plays, coaching)

Homemaking Ability to manage budgets
Ability to handle multiple tasks
Knowledge of human development
Skills in teaching/training others
Cooking, cleaning, laundry


Fixing Cars Ability to diagnose mechanical problems
Skill in using a variety of tools
Ability to see differences in shapes and sizes of objects
Knowledge of electronics

Work History

If you've worked before, list your jobs. Include volunteer, part-time, summer, and self-
employment. Next, write down work duties for the jobs you listed. Now, think about the skills
or talents it took to do each work duty. Write them down. Here's an example:

Work Duties Skills or Talents

Pick vegetables and fruits on a farm Inspect fruits for damage/ripeness

Use hoes, shovels and shears to plant, Ability to work quickly and skillfully
cultivate, and prune fruit trees with hands
skill in using tools
Ability to work outside for long
periods of time

Physical endurance Bending, stooping


List the schools you attended, dates, major studies or courses completed. Include military and
vocational education and on-the-job training.

List degrees, certificates, awards and honors.

Ask yourself what classes or training you liked. Why did you like them?

Physical Condition

Do you have any disabilities limiting the kind of work you can do? Companies will often make
special accommodations to employ disabled persons (in fact, some accommodations are legally
required). If you have strong or special physical capabilities, list these too.

Career Goals

What kind of work do you want to be doing 5 or 10 years from now?
What kind of job could you get now to help you reach this goal?

Matching Your Background And Experience To Jobs

Look at the abilities (talents) identified on your background and experience list. You have talents
that you use everyday.

Now find out what JOBS can use your talents.

Start at your local State Employment Service Office ("Job Service"). This office has free
information about many jobs. You may be given an appointment with a career counselor who can
help you decide what kind of work is best suited to your abilities and interests.

While you're at Job Service, ask to see the Guide for Occupational Exploration and the
Occupational Outlook Handbook (you can also get these books at most public libraries). These
easy to read books, published by the Department of Labor, describe -- work duties for many
different occupations -- skills and abilities needed for different types of jobs -- how to enter
occupations -- where jobs are located -- training and qualifications needed -- earnings, working
conditions, and future opportunities. Match the skills and abilities in your list to the skills and
abilities of different jobs. Don't limit yourself. The important thing is not the job title, but the
skills and abilities of the job. You may find that your skills and abilities match with an
occupation that you have never thought about.

Where To Get Job Information

If you know what job skills you have, you are ready to look for a job. You can look for job
openings at these sources:

Networking. Tell everyone you know you're looking for a job. Ask about openings where
your friends work.

Private employers. Contact employers directly to market your job talents. Talk to the person
who would supervise you even if there are no jobs currently open.

State Employment Service Offices provide help on finding jobs and other services, such as
career counseling. See the back of this brochure for the Employment Service Office in your

America's Job Bank. A nation-wide pool of job opportunities which will extend your search
to other states and can be viewed in your local Employment Service offices or directly
through the Internet at HTTP:\\WWW.AJB.DNI.US

Federal, state and local government personnel offices list a wide range of job
opportunities. Check the Government listings in your phone book.

Local public libraries have books on occupations and often post local job announcements.
Many state libraries are also providing free access to Internet through PCs.
Newspaper ads list various job openings.

Local phone book. Look for career counseling centers in your area (some may require fees).

Private employment and temporary centers offer placement (employer or job hunter may
pay a fee).

Community colleges and trade schools usually offer counseling and job information to
students and the general public.

Proprietary schools. Private training centers offer instruction in specific trades (tuition is
usually required). Check with your office of state education for credible schools.

Community organizations such as clubs, associations, women and minority centers, and
youth organizations.

Churches frequently operate employment services or provide job search help.

Veterans' placement centers operate through state employment offices. Veterans' social
and help organizations often have job listings for members.

Unions and apprenticeship programs provide job opportunities and information. Contact
your state apprenticeship council or relevant labor union directly.

Government sponsored training programs offer direct placement or short-term training
and placement for applicants who qualify. Check the yellow pages under Job Training
Programs or Government Services.

Journals and newsletters for professionals or trade associations often advertise job
openings in their field. Ask for these at the local library.

Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, all of the sources listed above serve persons of any race,
color, religion, sex or national origin. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
forbids agencies to discriminate against older workers. Both laws forbid employers to
discriminate in hiring.

Most Commonly Used Job-search Methods

Percent of total job
seekers using the Effectiveness

Method rate *

66.0% Applied directly to employer 47.7%
50.8 Asked friends about jobs where they work 22.1
41.8 Asked friends about jobs elsewhere 11.9
28.4 Asked relatives about jobs where they work 19.3
27.3 Asked relatives about jobs elsewhere 7.4
45.9 Answered local newspapers ads 23.9
21.0 Private employment agency 24.2
12.5 School placement office 21.4
15.3 Civil service test 12.5
10.4 Asked teacher or professor 12.1
1.6 Placed ad in local newspaper 12.9
6.0 Union hiring hall 22.2


* A percentage obtained by dividing the number of job seekers who actually found work using
the method, by the total number of job seekers who tried to use that method, whether successful
or not.

Writing Intriguing Cover Letters And Applications

You will need a cover letter whenever you send a resume or application form to a potential
employer. The letter should capture the employer's attention, show why you are writing, indicate
why your employment will benefit the company, and ask for an interview. The kind of specific
information that must be included in a letter means that each must be written individually. Each
letter must also be typed perfectly, which may present a problem. Word processing equipment
helps. Frequently only the address, first paragraph, and specifics concerning an interview will
vary. These items are easily changed on word processing equipment and memory typewriters. If
you do not have access to such equipment, you might be able to rent it. Or you might be able to
have your letters typed by a resume or employment services company listed in the yellow pages.
Be sure you know the full cost of such a service before agreeing to use one.

Let's go through a letter point by point.

Salutation. Each letter should be addressed by name to the person you want to talk with. That
person is the one who can hire you. This is almost certainly not someone in the personnel
department, and it is probably not a department head either. It is most likely to be the person who
will actually supervise you once you start work. Call the company to make sure you have the
right name. And spell it correctly.

Opening. The opening should appeal to the reader. Cover letters are sales letters. Sales are made
after you capture a person's attention. You capture the reader's attention most easily by talking
about the company rather than yourself. Mention projects under development, recent awards, or
favorable comments recently published about the company. You can find such information in the
business press, including the business section of local newspapers and the many magazines that
are devoted to particular industries. If you are answering an ad, you may mention it. If someone
suggested that you write, use their name (with permission, of course).

Body. The body of the letter gives a brief description of your qualifications and refers to the
resume, where your sales campaign can continue.

Closing. You cannot have what you do not ask for. At the end of the letter, request an interview.
Suggest a time and state that you will confirm the appointment. Use a standard complimentary
close, such as "Sincerely yours," leave three or four lines for your signature, and type your name.
I would type my phone number under my name; this recommendation is not usually made,
although phone numbers are found on most letterheads. The alternative is to place the phone
number in the body of the letter, but it will be more difficult to find there should the reader wish
to call you.

The purpose of these letters is to:

¨ tell how your job talents will benefit the company.
¨ show why the employer should read your resume or application form.
¨ ask for a job interview.

Tips for writing cover letters include:

Write a separate letter for each job application.
Type letters on quality 8 x 11 paper.
Use proper sentence structure and correct spelling and punctuation.
Convey personal warmth and enthusiasm.
Keep your letter short and to the point.

Sample Letter of Application

John Kile
Ace Auto Service
1369 Oak Street
Megapolis, IN 01234

Dear Mr. Kile:

I've been checking into auto repair shops in the area to find a garage that has a good
reputation and offers an entry mechanic training program. Several sources recommended Ace
Auto Service as a reliable garage that uses the latest diagnostic equipment.

I've worked on cars with my uncle, who is a member of the "Tin Lizzies" auto club. I'm doing
tune-ups through word of mouth referrals and I recently helped overhaul a Nissan 300ZX. I've
worked with computers in school, so I feel I could learn how to operate computerized diagnostic
equipment with minimal training.
With my background and interest in car repair, I think I could contribute to the continued
success of Ace Auto Service.

I will call you on Monday, December 13 to talk to you about possible job opportunities.


Joe Clark
6913 Willow Street
Megapolis, IN 01234
(321) 345-6789



Show that you've done some homework on the company (you know what they do, their interests
and problems) Try to identify something about you that is unique or of interest to the employer.
Request an interview. If possible, suggest a specific date and time.
Include your address and your telephone number.

Cover Letter Example

Mr. Clarence Brown, Supervisor
Norton Electronics
6543 Sunrise Ave. Anytown, US 04538

Dear Mr. Brown:

I am interested in the position of electronic assembler which you advertised recently in the
Anytown Oracle.

The enclosed resume outlines my experience and skills in electronics and printed circuit board
assembly. I am familiar with Norton Electronics and the quality products you produce.

I would like to meet with you to discuss how my skills would benefit Norton Electronics. I
may be reached at 778-4321.


Rhonda Ramirez
304 Park Street
Anytown, US 04536


Address each letter to the specific person you want to talk to (the person who would actually
supervise you). Highlight your job qualifications. State the position you are seeking and the
source of the job opening (newspaper ad, friend, etc.)

Preparing Your Resumé
You might see a hurdle to leap over. Or a hoop to jump through. Or a barrier to knock down.
That is how many people think of resumés, application forms, cover letters, and interviews. But
you do not have to think of them that way. They are not ways to keep you from a job; they are
ways for you to show an employer what you know and what you can do. After all, you are going
to get a job. It is just a question of which one.

Employers want to hire people who can do the job. To learn who these people are, they use
resumés, application forms, written tests, performance tests, medical examinations, and
interviews. You can use each of these different evaluation procedures to your advantage. You
might not be able to make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, but at least you can show what a good
ear you have.

Creating Effective Resumés and Application Forms

Resumés and application forms are two ways to achieve the same goal: To give the employer
written evidence of your qualifications. When creating a resumé or completing an application
form, you need two different kinds of information: Facts about yourself and facts about the job
you want. With this information in hand, you can present the facts about yourself in terms of the
job. You have more freedom with a resumé--you can put your best points first and avoid blanks.
But, even on application forms, you can describe your qualifications in terms of the job's duties.

Know thyself. Begin by assembling information about yourself. Some items appear on
virtually every resumé or application form, including the following:

Current address and phone number--if you are rarely at home during business hours, try to give
the phone number of a friend or relative who will take messages for you.

Job sought or career goal.

Experience (paid and volunteer)--date of employment, name and full address of the employer,
job title, starting and finishing salary, and reason for leaving (moving, returning to school, and
seeking a better position are among the readily accepted reasons)

Education--the school's name, the city in which it is located, the years you attended it, the
diploma or certificate you earned, and the course of studies you pursued.

Other qualifications--hobbies, organizations you belong to, honors you have received, and
leadership positions you have held.

Office machines, tools, and equipment you have used and skills that you possess.

Other information, such as your Social Security number, is often asked for on application
forms but is rarely presented on resumés. Application forms might also ask for a record of past
addresses and for information that you would rather not reveal, such as a record of convictions. If
asked for such information, you must be honest. Honesty does not, however, require that you
reveal disabilities that do not affect your overall qualifications for a job.

Know your job. Next, gather specific information about the jobs you are applying for. You
need to know the pay range (so you can make their top your bottom ), education and experience
usually required, hours and shifts usually worked. Most importantly, you need to know the job
duties (so that you can describe your experience in terms, of those duties) Study the job
description. Some job announcements, especially those issued by a government, even have a
checklist that assigns a numerical weight to different qualifications so that you can be certain as
to which is the most important; looking at such announcements will give you an idea of what
employers look for even if you do not wish to apply for a government job. If the announcement
or ad is vague, call the employer to learn what is sought.

Once you have the information you need, you can prepare a resumé. You may need to prepare
more than one master resumé if you are going to look for different kinds of jobs. Otherwise, your
resumé will not fit the job you seek.

Two kinds of resumés. The way you arrange your resumé depends on how well your
experience seems to prepare you for the position you want. Basically, you can either describe
your most recent job first and work backwards (reverse chronology) or group similar skills
together. No matter which format you use, the following advice applies generally.

Use specifics. A vague description of your duties will make only a vague impression.

Identify accomplishments. If you headed a project, improved productivity, reduced costs,
increased membership, or achieved some other goal, say so.

Type your resume, using a standard typeface. (Printed resumés are becoming more common, but
employers do not indicate a preference for them.)

Keep the length down to two pages at the most.

Remember your mother's advice not to say anything if you cannot say something nice. Leave all
embarrassing or negative information off the resumé--but be ready to deal with it in a positive
fashion at the interview.

Proofread the master copy carefully.

Have someone else proofread the master copy carefully.

Have a third person proofread the master copy carefully.

Use the best quality photocopying machine and good white or off-white paper.

The following information appears on almost every resumé.

Phone number at which you can be reached or receive messages.
Job or career sought.
References--often just a statement that references are available suffices. If your references are
likely to be known by the person who reads the resumé, however, their names are worth listing.
Special talents.

Personal information-height, weight, marital status, physical condition. Although this
information appears on virtually every sample resumé I have ever seen, it is not important
according to recruiters. In fact, employers are prohibited by law from asking for some of it. If
some of this information is directly job related--the height and weight of a bouncer is important
to a disco owner, for example--list it. Otherwise, save space and put in more information about
your skills.

Reverse chronology is the easiest method to use. It is also the least effective because it makes
when you did something more important than what you can do. It is an especially poor format if
you have gaps in your work history, if the job you seek is very different from the job you
currently hold, or if you are just entering the job market. About the only time you would want to
use such a resumé is when you have progressed up a clearly defined career ladder and want to
move up a rung.

Resumés that are not chronological may be called functional, analytical, skill oriented,
creative, or some other name. The differences are less important than the similarity, which is
that all stress what you can do. The advantage to a potential employer--and, therefore, to your job
campaign--should be obvious. The employer can see immediately how you will fit the job. This
format also has advantages for many job hunters because it camouflages gaps in paid
employment and avoids giving prominence to irrelevant jobs.

You begin writing a functional resumé by determining the skills the employer is looking for.
Again, study the job description for this information. Next, review your experience and education
to see when you demonstrated the ability sought. Then prepare the resumé itself, putting first the
information that relates most obviously to the job. The result will be a resumé with headings such
as "Engineering," "Computer Languages," "Communications Skills," or "Design Experience."
These headings will have much more impact than the dates that you would use on a
chronological resumé.

Fit yourself to a form. Some large employers, such as fast food restaurants and government
agencies, make more use of application forms than of resumés. The forms suit the style of large
organizations because people find information more quickly if it always appears in the same
place. However, creating a resumé before filling out an application form will still benefit you.
You can use the resumé when you send a letter inquiring about a position. You can submit a
resumé even if an application is required; it will spotlight your qualifications. And the
information on the resumé will serve as a handy reference if you must fill out an application form
quickly. Application forms are really just resumés in disguise anyway. No matter how rigid the
form appears to be, you can still use it to show why you are the person for the job being filled.

At first glance, application forms seem to give a job hunter no leeway. The forms certainly do
not have the flexibility that a resumé does, but you can still use them to your best advantage.
Remember that the attitude of the person reading the form is not, "Let's find out why this person
is unqualified," but, "Maybe this is the person we want." Use all the parts of the form--
experience blocks, education blocks, and others--to show that that person is you.

Here's some general advice on completing application forms.

Request two copies of the form. If only one is provided, photocopy it before you make a mark on
it. You'll need more than one copy to prepare rough drafts.

Read the whole form before you start completing it.

Prepare a master copy if the same form is used by several divisions within the same company or
organization. Do not put the specific job applied for, date, and signature on the master copy. Fill
in that information on the photocopies as you submit them.
Type the form if possible. If it has lots of little lines that are hard to type within, type the
information on a piece of blank paper that will fit in the space, paste the paper over the form, and
photocopy the finished product. Such a procedure results in a much neater, easier to read page.

Leave no blanks; enter N/A (for "not applicable") when the information requested does not apply
to you; this tells people checking the form that you did not simply skip the question.

Carry a resumé and a copy of other frequently asked information (such as previous addresses)
with you when visiting potential employers in case you must fill out an application on the spot.
Whenever possible, however, fill the form out at home and mail it in with a resumé and a cover
letter that point up your strengths.

You want to apply for a job. Do you need a resumé? That depends on the kind of job you're
applying for:


Professional, technical, administrative and managerial jobs. Sales positions, Secretarial, clerical,
and other office jobs.


Skilled jobs (Examples: Baker, Hotel Clerk, Electrician, Drafter, Welder)


Unskilled, quick turnover jobs (Examples: Fast Food Server, Laborers, Machine Loader,
Cannery Worker, etc.)


Tips for Good Resumés

You need two types of information to prepare your resumé:

1. Self information. You need to know your job talents, work history, education and career
goals. Did you complete your background and experience list on page four? If you did, you have
the self information required to prepare your resumé.

2. Job information. Gather specific information on the job you're applying for. Here's what you

Job duties (to match your skills to the skills needed for the job). Get your job duties from the job
announcement. If the announcement or ad is vague, call the employer and ask for a description of
job duties.

Education and experience required (again, so you can match your education and experience with
that required for the job).

Hours and shifts usually worked.

Pay range (make their top offer the minimum acceptable!)

With the information on yourself and the job you're applying for, you're ready to write your

Two Types of Resumés:

Reverse chronological resumés list jobs you've had. Your most recent job is listed first, your job
before that is listed second, and so on. Each job has employment dates and job duties.

Functional resumes describe your skills, abilities and accomplishments that relate to the job
you're applying for. Employment history is less detailed than chronological resumés.

With the two types of resumés that were discussed earlier you can decide which one suits your
needs by answering the following questions:

Have you progressed up a clearly defined career ladder, and you're looking for job advancement?

Do you have recent job experience at one or more companies?

If your answer is yes, use a REVERSE CHRONOLOGICAL resumé.

Are you a displaced homemaker?

Are you a veteran and you want to relate your military training to civilian jobs?

Do you have little or no job experience?

Do you have gaps in your work history?

Is the job you're applying for different from your present or recent job?

Do you want to emphasize your work skills and accomplishments instead of describing your job

If your answer to any of these questions is yes, use a FUNCTIONAL resumé.

The following pages have examples of both types of resumés and suggestions on how to prepare

Tips for Preparing a Functional Resumé:

Study the duties for the job you're applying for. Identify 2 or 3 general skills that are important to
the job.

Review your background and experience list. Find talents and accomplishments that demonstrate
your ability to perform the job skills.

List your talents and accomplishments under the job skills they relate to.

Use simple, short, active sentences.

This applicant is still in high school. He wants to work part time until he graduates.

139 River Lane
Cedar OH 01234


OBJECTIVE: Part time entry level position in Bookkeeping


Earned Exceptional Accomplishment raise at McDonald's.
Excellent at thinking through problem situations.
1 year successful experience in Bookkeeping & Cashier at McDonalds.
Finished business classes with high grades.



Accurately completed bookkeeping assignments at McDonald's in half the usual time required.
Recorded daily sales
computed total items sold and tallied total daily revenues
assembled monthly reports showing cashiering errors and audited employee register records
Verified accuracy of vendor invoices and helped compute employee hours on time cards.
Balanced family checkbook and helped pay bills.

Administrative Support

Assisted store manager in training and assigning employees
prepared new employee personnel folders
called substitutes to cover during illness or rush hours.
Filed and retrieved personnel records.
Posted and filed official documents.
Word processed letters; answered telephone; scheduled interviews; made reservations.


1990 Full time student Cedar High School
May 89- Present Cashier McDonalds
Dec. 88-May89 Bookkeeper McDonalds
Summer 1988 Clerk Cedar Recreation


Senior – Cedar High School
Business courses: Accounting, Word Processing, Journalism
President of school Business Club


Focus attention on strong points.
Most resumés do NOT include references.

This applicant is a high school dropout. She has some paid experience, so her resumé focuses
on related experience and her hobby.


215 Amber Lane
Tuvax, CA 94321
(890) 651-2543

JOB OBJECTIVE: position as a Paralegal


I have a strong interest in the law; I spend much of my spare time:
reading transcripts of old law cases [from law books at the library)
watching legal/educational programs on TV
Experience as a Legal Secretary:
updated and maintained the filing system
processed documents on the word processor
processed and delivered the mail
answered the phone and made appointments with clients


¨ word processing
¨ can take dictation
¨ have an investigative and curious nature


Studied business law and legal principles in high school and community college.


1987-Present Legal Secretary-- Kramer & Kramer, Truly, CA
1985-87 Receptionist -- Waiter Smyte, MD, Swiss, CA
1983-85 Food Server -- Burger King, Swiss, CA


Moohey College -- Secretarial courses -- two semesters 1984
Lonemont Community College -- Business courses -- three semesters 1985
Lonemont Adult School -- Equivalency certificate 1983

Personal information that is not related to the job (age, height, weight, and marital status) is
NOT included.

Describe specific skills and accomplishments, using short sentences. List special skills such as
word processing or ability to operate special equipment.. Leave space between parts of the

Tips for Preparing a Reverse Chronological Resumé:

List your jobs starting with your present or most recent job. Give exact dates for each job.
Briefly describe the main duties you performed in each job.
Emphasize duties that are important for the job you're applying for.
Use simple, short, active sentences.

This applicant has steady employment. Each new job has increased responsibility.

543 River Court
Nashville, Tennessee 37219
(516) 984-1000


Since 1990 Personal secretary, Cotton Gin Inc. Nashville, Tennessee
Secretary to personal director. Duties included taking dictation, word processing and scheduling

1984-90 Secretary, Cotton Gin Inc. Nashville Tennessee
One of 13 word processors in legal department. Duties included entering correspondence and
forms on the word processor, proof reading legal documents, and processing the mail.

1979-84 Clerk-typist , Raymond Sewing Factory, Memphis Tennessee.
Duties included typing forms, processing mail, establishing and maintaining filing systems.

1976-79 Receptionist, D.W. Meringue, D.D.S., Memphis Tennessee.
Duties included answering telephone, scheduling appointments, greeting patients and processing

Skills Can take dictation
Good organizational skills

Education Underwood High School, Nashville, Tennessee.
High school diploma with emphasis in business education, 1975

Member National Honor Society

Avoid precise dates--just give years if possible
Include scholarships and honors and major school subjects if related to your job goal.

10 Tips for the Effective Resumé

The following rules apply to all resumé:

1. If possible, use a computer to prepare your resume. There are computer programs that make it
easy to produce a professional looking resumé. Your local school, library, Employment Service
local office or "quick print" shop can help.
2. Do not include irrelevant personal information (age, weight, height, marital status, etc.)
3. Do not include salary and wages.
4. Center or justify all headings. Don't use abbreviations.
5. Be positive. Identify accomplishments.
6. Use action verbs (see the list below).
7. Be specific. Use concise sentences. Keep it short (one page is best).
8. Make sure your resumé "looks good" (neat and readable).
9. Proofread the master copy carefully. Have someone else proofread the master copy carefully.
10. Inspect photocopies for clarity, smudges and marks.

Action Verbs

Action verbs give your resumé power and direction. Try to begin all skills statements with an
action verb. Here is a sample of action verbs for different types of skills:

Management skills -administered -analyzed- coordinated -developed -directed -evaluated-
improved -supervised

Technical skills -assembled -built -calculated- designed -operated -overhauled -remodeled -

Clerical skills -arranged-catalogued -complied -generated -organized -processed -systematized

Creative skills -conceptualized- created -designed- established- fashioned -illustrated- invented -

Financial skills -administered -analyzed- balanced- budgeted- forecast- marketed -planned -

Helping skills -assessed -coached -counseled- diagnosed- facilitated- represented

Research Skills -clarified -evaluated -identified -inspected -organized -summarized

Communications skills -arranged -addressed- authored -drafted- formulated -persuaded

The Talent Bank

Once a resumé is completed, it can be fed into the Talent Bank, now available in many local Job
Service offices. The "Bank" is an electronically searchable database of resumés or other
statements of qualifications from job hunters seeking employment. Those searching for jobs or
new opportunities can post their resumés/qualifications to the bank. Employers search the banks
to select a group of resumés for further screening.

Triumphing on Tests and at Interviews

A man with a violin case stood on a subway platform in The Bronx. He asked a conductor,
"How do you get to Carnegie Hall?" The conductor replied, "Practice! Practice! Practice!"

Tests. That old joke holds good advice for people preparing for employment tests or
interviews. The tests given to job applicants fall into four categories: General aptitude tests,
practical tests, tests of physical agility, and medical examinations. You can practice for the first
three. If the fourth is required, learn as soon as possible what the disqualifying conditions are,
then have your physician examine you for them so that you do not spend years training for a job
that you will not be allowed to hold

How to prepare for tests:

You can't study directly for aptitude tests. But you can get ready to do your best by taking other
tests. Look for tests or quizzes in magazines and school books. Set time limits. By taking tests,
you learn about the testing process. This helps you feel more comfortable when you are tested.
Brush up on job skills. For example, if you're taking a typing test, practice typing. If you're
taking a construction test, review books and blueprints.

Get ready for physical tests by doing activities similar to those required for the job.
For literacy tests, review and do exercises in reading and math books or enroll in remedial
classes. It's natural to be nervous about tests (some anxiety may even help you).

Here are some tips that will help you take most tests:

1. Make a list of what you need for the test (pencil, eye glasses, I.D., etc.). Check it before
2. Get a good night's sleep.
3. If you're sick, call and reschedule the test.
4. Leave for the test site early.
5. If you have any physical difficulties, tell the test administrator.
6. If you don't understand the test instructions, ASK FOR HELP before the test begins.
7. If there are strict time limits, budget your time. Don't linger over difficult questions.
8. Find out if guessing is penalized. If it's not, guess on questions you're not sure about.
9. If you have time, review your answers. Check to not misread a question or make careless
10. You may be able to re-take the test. Ask about the re-testing policy.
11. Get a proper interpretation of your scores. The scores may indicate other career opportunities
that should be pursued.

To practice for a test, you must learn what the test is. Once again, you must know what job
you want to apply for and for whom you want to work in order to find out what tests, if any, are
required. Government agencies, which frequently rely on tests, will often provide a sample of the
test they use. These samples can be helpful even if an employer uses a different test. Copies of
standard government tests are usually available at the library.

If you practice beforehand, you'll be better prepared and less nervous on the day of the test.
That will put you ahead of the competition. You will also improve your performance by
following this advice:

Make a list of what you will need at the test center, including a pencil; check it before leaving the

Get a good night's sleep.

Be at the test center early--at least 15 minutes early.

Read the instructions carefully; make sure they do not differ from the samples you practiced

Generally, speed counts; do not linger over difficult questions.

Learn if guessing is penalized. Most tests are scored by counting up the right answers; guessing
is all to the good. Some tests are scored by counting the right answers and deducting partial
credit for wrong answers; blind guessing will lose you points--but if you can eliminate two
wrong choices, a guess might still pay off.

Interviews. For many of us, interviews are the most fearsome part of finding a job. But they
are also our best chance to show an employer our qualifications. Interviews are far more flexible
than application forms or tests. Use that flexibility to your advantage. As with tests, you can
reduce your anxiety and improve your performance by preparing for your interviews ahead of

Begin by considering what interviewers want to know. You represent a risk to the employer.
A hiring mistake is expensive in terms of lost productivity, wasted training money, and the cost
of finding a replacement. To lessen the risk, interviewers try to select people who are highly
motivated, understand what the job entails, and show that their background has prepared them for

You show that you are highly motivated by learning about the company before the interview,
by dressing appropriately, and by being well mannered--which means that you greet the
interviewer by name, you do not chew gum or smoke, you listen attentively, and you thank the
interviewer at the end of the session. You also show motivation by expressing interest in the job
at the end of the interview.

You show that you understand what the job entails and that you can perform it when you
explain how your qualifications prepare you for specific duties as described in the company's job
listing and when you ask intelligent questions about the nature of the work and the training
provided new workers

One of the best ways to prepare for an interview is to have some practice sessions with a
friend or two. Here is a list of some of the most commonly asked questions to get you started.

Why did you apply for this job?
What do you know about this job or company?
Why did you choose this career? Why should I hire you?
What would you do if... (usually filled in with a work-related crisis?
How would you describe yourself?
What would you like to tell me about yourself?
What are your major strengths?
What are your major weaknesses?
What type of work do you like to do best? "
What are your interests outside work?
What type of work do you like to do least?
What accomplishment gave you the greatest satisfaction
What was your worst mistake?
What would you change in your past life?
What courses did you like best or least in school?
What did you like best or least about your last job?
Why did you leave your last job?
Why were you fired?
How does your education or experience relate to this job?
What are your goals?
How do you plan to reach them?
What do you hope to be doing in 5 years? 10?
What salary do you expect?

Many job hunting books available at libraries discuss ways to answer these questions.
Essentially, your strategy should be to concentrate on the job and your ability to do it no matter
what the question seems to be asking. If asked for a strength, mention something job related. If
asked for a weakness, mention a job-related strength (you work too hard, you worry too much
about details, you always have to see the big picture). If asked about a disability or a specific
negative factor in your past--a criminal record, a failure in school, being fired--be prepared to
stress what you learned from the experience, how you have overcome the shortcoming, and how
you are now in a position to do a better job.

So far, only the interviewer's questions have been discussed. But an interview will be a two-
way conversation. You really do need to learn more about the position to find out if you want the
job. Given how frustrating it is to look for a job, you do not want to take just any position only to
learn after 2 weeks that you cannot stand the place and have to look for another job right away.

Here are some questions for you to ask the interviewer.

What would a day on this job be like?
Whom would I report to? May I meet this person?
Would I supervise anyone? May I meet them?
How important is this job to the company?
What training programs are offered?
What advancement opportunities are offered?
Why did the last person leave this job?
What is that person doing now?
What is the greatest challenge of this position?
What plans does the company have with regard to...? (Mention some development of which you
have read or heard)
Is the company growing?

After you ask such questions, listen to the interviewer's answers and then, if at all possible,
point to something in your education or experience related to it. You might notice that questions
about salary and fringe benefits are not included in the above list. Your focus at a first interview
should be the company and what you will do for it, not what it will pay you. The salary range
will often be given in the ad or position announcement, and information on the usual fringe
benefits will be available from the personnel department. Once you have been offered a position,
you can negotiate the salary. The job hunting guides available in bookstores and at the library
give many more hints on this subject.

At the end of the interview, you should know what the next step will be: Whether you should
contact the interviewer again, whether you should provide more information, whether more
interviews must be conducted, and when a final decision will be reached. Try to end on a positive
note by reaffirming your interest in the position and pointing out why you will be a good choice
to fill it.

Immediately after the interview, make notes of what went well and what you would like to
improve. To show your interest in the position, send a follow-up letter to the interviewer,
providing further information on some point raised in the interview and thanking the interviewer
once again. Remember, someone is going to hire you; it might be the person you just talked to. If
you are-- involved in counseling others about job opportunities, -- thinking about a career, --
contemplating a career change, -- involved in education planning, -- involved in worker training,
or displaced worker retraining, -- or simply interested in knowing about the world of work and
how it is likely to change, you should examine these two job outlook publications.

Occupational Outlook Handbook
Probably the most widely used career resource; found in 9 out of 10 secondary schools.
Updated every 2 years, it describes what workers do on the job, where they work, how much they
earn, the training and education they need, and job outlook for about 200 occupations.

Occupational Outlook Quarterly
It helps to keep you informed about changing career opportunities, and provides practical,
"how-to-do-it" information on choosing and getting today's and tomorrow's jobs. If these
publications aren't available in your local public library or high school media center, you may
want to purchase them for your own use. Here's how to order:

Send orders to:

Bureau of Labor Statistics Publications Sales Center
P.O. Box 2145
Chicago, IL 60690

or to:

Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402

Please Note:

Subscription orders and credit card orders must be sent directly to the Superintendent of

Most hiring decisions are made at the first interview. How you come across in that interview
could be as important as your experience and job talents.

Here are some interviewing tips that will help you get the job you want.
Before The Interview
Learn as much as you can about the company salary and benefits. Friends, neighbors and
relatives who work for the company are good sources of information. Libraries, local chambers
of commerce, etc. are also helpful.
Learn everything you can about the job and how your previous experience and training qualify
you for the job.
Write down the things you will need to complete applications: your background and experience
list (contains names of former employers, schools, training, etc.).
a resumé or summary of your work experience.
samples of your work (if practical). Also include any work-related or community service awards
that you have received.
Be sure to bring your social security card, driver's license, union card, military records, etc

The Interview:
Dress for the interview and the job. Don't overdress or look too informal.

Always go to the interview alone. Arrange for baby sitters, transportation, and other pitfalls
ahead of time so that you can be on time and relaxed in the interview.

Find common ground with the employer. Pictures, books, plants, etc., in the employer's office
can be conversation.

Express your interest in the job and the company using information you gathered to prepare for
the interview.

Let the interviewer direct the conversation.

Answer questions in a clear and positive manner. Show how your experience and training will
make you productive in the shortest time with minimal supervision.

Speak positively of former employers and co-workers no matter why you left even if you were
fired from your last job.

Let the employer lead into conversations about benefits. Your focus on these items can be a
"turnoff." But, don't be afraid to ask questions about things that you really need to know.

When discussing salary, be flexible--avoid naming a specific salary. If you're too high, you risk
not getting the job. If you're too low, you undersell yourself. Answer questions on salary
requirements with responses such as, "I'm interested in the job as a career opportunity so I'm
negotiable on the starting salary." Negotiate, but don't sell yourself short.

"Closing" the Interview:
If the employer does not offer you a job or say when you will hear about it, ask when you may
call to find out about the decision.

If the employer asks you to call or return for another interview, make a written note of the time,
date and place.
Thank the employer for the interview and reaffirm your interest and qualifications for the job.


For some jobs, you may need to take a test. Usually, the job announcement or ad will say if a test
is required. There are several types of selection and job fitness tests:
Aptitude tests predict your ability to learn and perform job tasks.

Job knowledge and proficiency tests measure what you know and what you can do in a job (for
example, word processing speed for a secretary job, knowledge of street names and routes for a
fire fighter job, etc.)

Literacy tests measure reading and arithmetic levels.

Personality tests help identify your personal style in dealing with tasks and other people. Certain
personalities can be well suited for some jobs and not-so well suited for other jobs. For example,
an outgoing person may be well suited for a sales job.

Honesty and Integrity tests evaluate the likelihood of stealing and trustworthiness of applicants.

Physical ability tests measure strength, flexibility, stamina and speed for jobs that require
physical performance.

Medical tests determine physical fitness to do a job.

Drug tests show the presence of illegal drugs that could impair job performance and threaten the
safety of others.

After the Interview

Make each interview a learning experience. After it is over, ask yourself these questions:

What points did I make that seemed to interest the employer?
Did I present my qualifications well?
Did I overlook qualifications that were important for the job?
Did I learn all I needed to know about the job?
Did I ask questions I had about the job?
Did I talk too much? Too little?
Was I too tense? Too relaxed?
Was I too aggressive? Not aggressive enough?
Was I dressed appropriately?
Did I effectively close the interview?

Make a list of specific ways you can improve your next interview. Remember, "practice makes
perfect"-- the more you interview, the better you will get at it.
If you plan carefully and stay motivated, you can "market your job talents". You will get a job
that uses your skills and pays you well.

Complete items 1-3 on this checklist before starting your job search
Complete items 4-5 everyday of your job search
Complete items 6-9 when you have interviews





Make a background and experience list. -- Review information on jobs. -- Identify jobs that use
your talents.
Ask relatives, etc. to help you look for job openings.
Go to your State Employment Service Office for assistance.
Contact employers to get company and job information.
Utilize other sources (page 7&8) to get job leads.
Obtain job announcements and descriptions.
Write resumés (if needed). Use job announcements to "fit" your skills with job requirements.
Write cover letters or letters of application.
Assemble a job search kit: pens, writing tablet, maps, public transportation guides, clean copies
of resumés & applications, background and experience list, Social Security Card, and picture ID.
Use the Talent Bank.
Wake up early to start looking for work.
Make a "to do" list of everything you'll do to look for a job.


Work hard all day to find a job. -- Reward yourself (do a hobby or sport, visit friends, etc.)

Call employers directly (even if they're not advertising openings). Talk to the person who would
supervise you if you were hired.
Go to companies to fill out applications.
Contact your friends and relatives to see if they know about any openings.
Use America's Job Bank on the Internet.

Learn about the company you're interviewing with.
Review job announcements to determine how your skills will
help you do the job.
Assemble resumés, application forms, etc. (make sure everything is neat).

Dress right for the interview.
Go alone.
Be clean, concise, and positive.
Thank the interviewer.


Send a hand written thank you note to the interviewer within 24 hours of the
Think about how you could improve the interview.


Find out about the test(s) you're taking.
Brush up on job skills.
Relax and be confident.


Understand job duties & expectations, work hours, salary, benefits, etc.
Be flexible when discussing salary (but don't sell yourself short).

Books That Can Give You More Tips for Finding the Right Job
Everything You Need For Your Job Search

Bolles, Richard N., What Color Is Your Parachute? Ten Speed Press, Box 7123, Berkeley, CA
94707. Updated annually.

Figler, Howard E., The Complete Job Search Handbook: Presenting the Skills You Need to Get
Any Job, And Have A Good Time Doing It. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 383 Madison Ave.,
New York, NY 10017. 1979.

Collard, Betsy A., The High-Tech Career Book. Finding Your Place in Today's Job Market.
William Kaufmann, Inc., 95 1st St., Los Altos, CA 94022. 1986.

Durkin, Jon, "Mid-Life Career Changes." Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, Human
Engineering Laboratory, 701 Sutter St., San Francisco, CA 94109.

Wegmann, Robert, and Chapman, Robert, and Johnson, Miriam, Work in the New Economy:
Careers and Job Seeking into the 21st Century. JIST Works, 720 North Park Ave., Indianapolis,
Indiana 46202. 1989.

Resumé Writing:

Parker, Yana, The Damn Good Resume Guide. Ten Speed Press, Box 7123, Berkeley, CA
94707. 1986.

Interview Skills:

Hellman, Paul, Ready, Aim, You're Hired!: How to Job-Interview Successfully Anytime,
Anywhere with Anyone, AMACOM, 135 W. 50th St., New York, NY 10020. 1986.

Medley, H. Anthony, Sweaty Palms -- The Neglected Art of Being Interviewed. Ten Speed
Press, Box 7123, Berkeley, CA 94707. 1984.

Young Job Seekers:

Haldane, Bernard, and Jean, and Martin, Lowell, Job Power: The Young People's Job Finding
Guide. Acropolis Books Ltd., 2400 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20009. 1980.

Durkin, Jon, "Mid-Life Career Changes." Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, Human
Engineering Laboratory, 701 Sutter St., San Francisco, CA 94109.

Women Job Seekers:

Educational Testing Service, Publication Order Services, CN 6736, Princeton, NJ 08541-6736. I
CAN Lists. (Classifies homemaker skills under various job titles in business).

Disabled Workers:

Klein, Karen with Hope, Carla Derrick, Bouncing Back From Injury: How to Take Charge of
Your Recuperation. Prima Publishing & Communications, P.O. Box 1260BB, Rocklin, CA
95677. 1988.

Minority Group Applicants:

Johnson, Willis L., Ed., Directory of Special Programs for Minority Group Members: Career
Information Services, Employment Skills Banks, Financial Aid Sources, 4th ed. Garrett Park
Press, P.O. Box 190, Garrett Park, MD 20896. 1986.

Job Skill Requirements:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Supt. of Documents, U.S. Govt.
Printing Off., Washington, DC 20402. (Describes hundreds of occupations and thirty-five major

Guide for Occupational Exploration. Supt. of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington,
DC 20402.

National Association of Trade and Technical Schools,
2251 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009 (202) 333-1021. (A list of accredited
technical schools).

Federal Job Opportunities

U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Career America, Supt. of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing
Off., Washington, DC 20402.

State Employment Service Offices

ALABAMA Employment Service, Dept. of Industrial Relations 469 Monroe Street
Montgomery, AL 36130 (334) 242-8990

ALASKA Employment Service Department of Labor P.O. Box 25509 Juneau, AK 99802-5509
(907) 465-2712

ARIZONA Department of Economic Security P.O. Box 6123-010A Phoenix, AZ 85005 (602)

ARKANSAS Employment Security Division P.O. Box 2981 Little Rock, AR 72203 (501) 682-

CALIFORNIA Job Service Division P.O. Box 826880-MIG 37 Sacramento, CA 94280-0001
(916) 654-9047

COLORADO Department of Labor & Employment Tower 2, Suite 400 1515 Arapaho St.
Denver, CO 80202-2117 (303) 620-4700

CONNECTICUT Labor Department 200 Folly Brook Blvd. Wethersfield, CT 06109 566-4384

DELAWARE Department of Labor 820 North French St., 6th Fl. Wilmington, DE 19714-9499
(302) 577-2713

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DC Department of Employment Services500 C Street, NW, Rm.
600 Washington, D.C. 20001 (202) 724-7107

FLORIDA Dept. of Labor & Employment Security 2012 Capitol Circle, SE Suite 303, Hartman
Bldg. Tallahassee, FL 32399-2152 (904) 922-7021

GEORGIA Department of Labor 148 International Blvd, NE Suite 400 Atlanta, GA 30303 (404)

HAWAII Department of Labor & Industrial Relations 830 Punchbowl St., Room 320 Honolulu,
HI 96813 (808) 586-8844

IDAHO Department of Employment 317 Main Street Boise, ID 83735 (208) 334-6110

ILLINOIS Department of Employment Security 401 South State St., Suite 624 Chicago, IL
60605 (312) 793-9279

INDIANA Department of Workforce Development 10 North Senate Avenue Indianapolis, IN
46204-2277 (317) 233-5661

IOWA Department of Employment Services 1000 East Grand Avenue Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 281-5365

KANSAS Department of Human Resources 401 Topeka Blvd. Topeka, KS 66603 (913) 296-

KENTUCKY Department for Employment Services 275 E. Main Street Frankfort, KY 40621
(502) 564-5331

LOUISIANA Office of Employment Security P.O. Box 94094 Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094
(504) 342-3013

MAINE Department of Labor P.O. Box 309 Augusta, ME 04330-0309 (207) 287-3788

MARYLAND Department of Economic & Employment Development 1100 North Eutaw St.,
Rm. 600 Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 767-2400

MASSACHUSETTS Department of Employment & Training 19 Stanford St., 3rd Floor Boston,
MA 02114 (617) 626-6600

MICHIGAN Employment Security Commission 7310 Woodward Avenue Detroit, MI 48202
(313) 876-5901

MINNESOTA Department of Economic Security 390 North Robert St. St. Paul, MN 55101
(612) 296-3711

MISSISSIPPI Employment Security Commission P.O. Box 1699 Jackson, MS 39215-1699 (601)

MISSOURI Department of Labor and Industrial Relations P.O. Box 504 Jefferson City, MO
65102-0504 (314) 751-4091

MONTANA Department of Labor & Industry State Capitol Helena, MT 59624 (406) 444-3555

NEBRASKA Department of Labor 550 South 16th St. Lincoln, NE 68509 (402) 471-3405

NEVADA Department of Employment Training and Rehabilitation 1830 East Sahara Las Vegas,
NV 89104 (702) 486-7923

NEW HAMPSHIRE Department of Employment Security 32 South Main Street Concord, NH

NEW JERSEY Department of Labor CN 110 Trenton, NJ 08625-0110 (609) 292-2323

NEW MEXICO Department of Labor P.O. Box 1928 Albuquerque, NM 87103 (305) 841-8409

NEW YORK Department of Labor State Campus Building 12 Albany, NY 12240 (518) 457-

NORTH CAROLINA Employment Security Commission P.O. Box 25903 Raleigh, NC 27611
(919) 733-7546

NORTH DAKOTA Job Service ND P.O. Box 5507 Bismarck, ND 58506-5507 (701- 328-2836

OHIO Bureau of Employment Services 145 S. Front Street Columbus, OH 43215 (614) 466-

OXLAHOMA Employment Security Commission 215 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg. 2401
N. Lincoln Oklahoma City, OK 73105 (405) 557-7201

OREGON Employment Department 875 Union Street, N.E. Salem, OR 97311 (503) 378-3208

PENNSYLVANIA Department of Labor and Industry Labor & Industry Building, Room 1700
Harrisburg, PA 17121 (717) 787-3756

PUERTO RICO Bureau of Employment Security 505 Munoz Rivera Avenue Hate Rey, PR
00918 (809) 754-5376

RHODE ISLAND Department of Employment and Training 101 Friendship Street Providence,
RI 02903-3740 (401) 277-3732

SOUTH CAROLINA Employment Security Commission P.O. Box 995 Columbia, SC 29202
(803) 737-2617

SOUTH DAKOTA Department of Labor 700 Governor's Drive Pierre, SD 57402-4730 605-773-

TENNESSEE Department of Employment Security 500 James Robertson Parkway, 12th Floor-
Volunteer Plaza Nashville, TN 37245-0001 (615) 741-2131

TEXAS Workforce Commission 101 E. 15th Street Austin, TX 78778 (512) 463-2213

UTAH Department of Workforce Services 140 East 300 South P.O. Box 143001 Salt Lake City,
UT 84114-3001 (801) 531-3780

VERMONT Department of Employment and Training P.O. Box 488 Montpelier, VT 05601-
0488 (802) 828-4300

VIRGIN ISLANDS Department of Labor 2131 Hospital Street Christianstead, St. Croix USVI
00802 (809) 773-1994

VIRGINIA Employment Commission 703 East Main Street Richmond, VA 23219 (804) 786-

WASHINGTON Employment Security Department P.O. Box 9046 Olympia, WA 98507-9046
(360) 902-9301

WEST VIRGINIA Bureau Employment Security 112 California Avenue Charleston, WV 25305-
0112 (304) 558-2630

WISCONSIN Department of Industry, Labor & Human Relations P.O. Box 7946 Madison, WI
53707 (608) 266-7552

WYOMING Department of Employment 122 West 25th Street Herschler Bldg., 2nd Floor
Cheyenne, WY 82002 (307) 777-640

National Office United States Employment Service 200 Constitution Ave. NW Room N-4470
Washington, DC 20210 (202) 219-5257


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