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Growing Up Drug Free:

A Parent's Guide to Prevention



GRADES 10-12





Child rearing is one of the most important tasks anyone ever performs, and the one for
which there is the least preparation. Most of us learn how to be parents through on-the-job
training and by following the example that our parents set. Today the widespread use of alcohol
and other drugs subjects our children, families, and communities to pressures unheard of 30 or 40
years ago. Frankly, many of us need help to deal with this frightening threat to our children's
health and well-being. Recent surveys show that we are making progress in our national battle
against some drugs. Casual use is declining, attitudes are changing, and we know more about
what works to prevent drug use by our young people.
As parents, we can build on that progress in our own families by having strong, loving
relationships with our children, by teaching standards of right and wrong, by setting and
enforcing rules for behavior, by knowing the facts about alcohol and other drugs, and by really
listening to our children.

Every family has expectations of behavior that are determined by principles and
standards. These add up to "values." Children who decide not to use alcohol or other drugs often
make this decision because they have strong convictions against the use of these substances-
convictions that are based in a value system. Social, family, and religious values give young
people reasons to say no and help them stick to their decisions.

Here are some ways to help make your family's values clear:
Communicate values openly. Talk about why values such as honesty, self-reliance, and
responsibility are important, and how values help children make good decisions. Teach your
child how each decision builds on previous decisions as one's character is formed, and how a
good decision makes the next decision easier.
Recognize how your actions affect the development of your child's values. Simply stated,
children copy their parents' behavior. Children whose parents smoke, for example, are more
likely to become smokers. Evaluate your own use of tobacco, alcohol, prescription medicines,
and even over-the-counter drugs. Consider how your attitudes and actions may be shaping your
child's choice about whether or not to use alcohol or other drugs. This does not mean, however,
that if you are in the habit of having wine with dinner or an occasional beer or cocktail you must
stop. Children can understand and accept that there are differences between what adults may do
legally and what is appropriate and legal for children. Keep that distinction sharp, however. Do
not let your children be involved in your drinking by mixing a cocktail for you or bringing you a
beer, and do not allow your child to have sips of your drink.
Look for conflicts between your words and your actions. Remember that children are quick to
sense when parents send signals by their actions that it's all right to duck unpleasant duties or to
be dishonest. Telling your child to say that you are not at home because a phone call comes at an
inconvenient time is, in effect, teaching your child that it is all right to be dishonest.
Make sure that your child understands your family values. Parents assume, sometimes
mistakenly, that children have "absorbed" values even though they may be rarely or never
discussed. You can test your child's understanding by discussing some common situations at the
dinner table; for example, "What would you do if the person ahead of you in line at the theater
dropped a dollar bill?"

As parents, we are responsible for setting rules for our children to follow. When it comes
to alcohol and other drug use, strong rules need to be established to protect the well-being of a
child. Setting rules is only half the job, however; we must be prepared to enforce the penalties
when the rules are broken.
Be specific. Explain the reasons for the rules. Tell your child what the rules are and what
behavior is expected. Discuss the consequences of breaking the rules: what the punishment will
be, how it will be carried out, how much time will be involved, and what the punishment is
supposed to achieve.
Be consistent. Make it clear to your child that a no-alcohol/no-drug-use rule remains the same at
all times-in your home, in a friend's home, anywhere the child is.
Be reasonable. Don't add new consequences that have not been discussed before the rule was
broken. Avoid unrealistic threats such as, "Your father will kill you when he gets home." Instead,
react calmly and carry out the punishment that the child expects to receive for breaking the rule.

As parents, we need to know about alcohol and other drugs so that we can provide our
children with current and correct information. If we have a working knowledge of common
drugs--know their effects on the mind and body, and the symptoms of their use we can discuss
these subjects intelligently with our children. In addition, well informed parents are better able
to recognize if a child has symptoms of alcohol or drug-related problems: At a minimum, you
know the different types of drugs and alcohol most commonly used and the dangers associated
with each;
be able to identify paraphernalia associated with each drug; be familiar with the street names of
drugs; know what drugs look like;
know the signs of alcohol and other drug use and be alert for changes in your child's behavior or
know how to get help promptly if you suspect your child may be using alcohol and other drugs.
For current information on alcohol and other drug use, the resource section in this guide
can help direct parents to clearinghouses, drug and alcohol prevention organizations, and parent
groups--to name a few.

Parents who are clear about not wanting their children to use illicit drugs may find it
harder to be tough about alcohol. After all, alcohol is legal for adults, many parents drink, and
alcohol is a part of some religious observances. As a result, we may view alcohol as a less
dangerous substance than other drugs. The facts say otherwise:
4.6 million teenagers have a drinking problem.
4 percent of high school seniors drink alcohol every day.
Alcohol-related accidents are the leading cause of death among young
people 15 to 24 years of age.
About half of all youthful deaths in drowning, fires, suicide, and homicides are alcohol related.
Young people who use alcohol at an early age are more likely to use alcohol heavily and to have
alcohol-related problems; they are also more likely to abuse other drugs and to get into trouble
with the law.
Young people whose body weight is lower than adults reach a higher blood alcohol concentration
level than adults and show greater effects for longer periods of time.

We know that smokers are 10 times as likely as nonsmokers to develop lung cancer and 3
times as likely to die at early ages from heart attack. In fact smoking was the leading
cause of early death among adults. Nicotine, the active ingredient in tobacco, is as addictive as
heroin, and fewer than 20 percent of smokers are able to quit the first time they try. Despite
these facts, many children use these products.
Many high school seniors are daily smokers; smokeing 10 or more cigarettes per
Young people who use cigarettes are also at great risk for all other drug use.
Many chldren try cigarettes, 40 percent of them before they have reached high school.
Cigarettes contain more than 4,000 harmful substances, several of which cause cancer.
12 percent of boys and 1 percent of girls have chewed tobacco or used snuff. Smokeless tobacco
is just as addictive and harmful as tobacco that is smoked.
*** A Quiz for Parents***
1. What is the most commonly used drug in the United States?
(a) heroin
(b) cocaine
(c) alcohol
(d) marijuana

2. Name the three drugs most commonly used by children.

3. Which drug is associated with the most teenage deaths?

4. Which of the following contains the most alcohol?
(a) a 12-ounce can of beer
(b) a cocktail
(c) a 12-ounce wine cooler
(d) a 5-ounce glass of wine
(e) all contain equal amounts of alcohol.

5. Crack is a particularly dangerous drug because it is
(a) cheap
(b) readily available
(c) highly addictive
(d) all of the above

6. Fumes from which of the following can be inhaled to produce a high:
(a) spray paint
(b) model glue
(c) nail polish remover
(d) whipped cream canisters
(e) all of the above

7. People who have not used alcohol and other drugs before their 20th birthday:
(a) have no risk of becoming chemically dependent
(b) are less likely to develop a drinking problem or use illicit drugs
(c) have an increased risk of becoming chemically dependent.

8. A speedball is a combination of which two drugs?
(a) cocaine and heroin
(b) PCP and LSD
(c) valium and alcohol
(d) amphetamines and barbiturates

9. Anabolic steroids are dangerous because they may result in:
(a) development of female characteristics in males
(b) development of male characteristics in females
(c) Stunted growth
(d) damage to the liver and cardiovascular system
(e) overaggressive behavior
(f) all of the above

10. How much alcohol can a pregnant woman safely consume?
(a) a 6-ounce glass of wine with dinner
(b) two 12-ounce beers each day
(c) five 4-ounce shots of whiskey a month
(d) none



1. (c) Because it is legal for adults and widely accepted in our culture, alcohol is the drug most
often used in the United States.
2. Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. These are the "gateway" drugs, drugs that children are first
exposed to and whose use often precedes use of other drugs
3. Alcohol. Thousands of teenagers die in alcohol-related traffic accidents each year. 40,000
more are injured.
4. (e) All four contain approximately 1.5 ounces of alcohol
5. (d) Small quantities of crack can be bought for a few dollars. The low price makes it easily
affordable to young people. In addition, crack is thought to be one of the most addictive drugs.
6. (e) Virtually anything that emits fumes or comes in aerosol form can be inhaled to obtain a
7. (b) Early use of alcohol and other drugs--often by age 15 or less--is strongly associated with
drug-related problems such as addiction.
8. (a) Combining cocaine and heroin is increasingly popular as a way of trying to lessen or
control bad side effects.
9. (f) Steroid users subject themselves to more than 70 side effects. The liver and cardiovascular
and reproductive systems are most seriously affected by steroid use. In females, irreversible
masculine traits can develop. Psychological effects in both sexes can cause very aggressive
behavior and depression.
10. (d) Medical researchers have not established any safe limits for alcohol intake during

Many parents hesitate to discuss alcohol and other drug use with their child. Some of us
believe that our children couldn't become involved with illegal substances. Others delay because
we don't know what to say or how to say it, or we are afraid of putting ideas into our children's
Don't wait until you think your child has a problem. Many young people in treatment
programs say that they had used alcohol and other drugs for at least two years before their
parents knew about it. Begin early to talk about alcohol and other drugs, and keep the lines of
communication open.
Don't be afraid to admit that you don't have all the answers. Let your child know that you
are concerned, and that you can work together to find answers. Some references that may help
are listed later in this text of this guide.
Here are some basic hints for improving your ability to talk with your child about alcohol
and other drugs:
Be a good listener. Make sure your child feels comfortable bringing problems or questions to
you. Listen closely to what your child says. Don't allow anger at what you hear to end the
discussion. If necessary, take a 5 minute break to calm down before continuing. Take note of
what your child is not saying, too. If the child does not tell you about problems, take the
initiative and ask questions about what is going on at school or in other activities.
Be available to discuss even sensitive subjects. Young people need to know that they can rely on
their parents for accurate information about subjects that are important to them. If your child
wants to discuss something at a time when you can't give it full attention, explain why you can't
talk, set a time to talk later, and then carry through on it!
Give lots of praise. Emphasize the things your youngster is doing right instead of always
focusing on things that are wrong. When parents are quicker to praise than to criticize, children
learn to feel good about themselves, and they develop the self- confidence to trust their own
Give clear messages. When talking about the use of alcohol and other drugs, be sure you give
your child a clear no-use message, so that the child will know exactly what is expected. For
example, "In our family we don't allow the use of illegal drugs, and children are not allowed to
Model good behavior. Children learn by example as well as teaching. Make sure that your own
actions reflect the standards of honesty, integrity, and fair play that you expect of your child.

Effective communication between parents and children is not always easy to achieve.
Children and adults have different communication styles and different ways of responding in a
conversation. In addition, timing and atmosphere may determine how successful communication
will be. Parents should make time to talk with their children in a quiet, unhurried manner. The
following tips are designed to make communication more successful.

Pay attention.
Don't interrupt.
Don't prepare what you will say while your child is speaking.
Reserve judgment until your child has finished and has asked you for a response

Be aware of your child's facial expression and body language. Is your child nervous or
uncomfortable--frowning, drumming fingers, tapping a foot, looking at the clock? Or does your
child seem relaxed--smiling, looking you in the eyes? Reading these signs will help parents know
how the child is feeling.
During the conversation, acknowledge what your child is saying- -move your body forward if
you are sitting, touch a shoulder if you are walking, or nod your head and make eye contact.

* “I am very concerned about...." or "I understand that it is sometimes difficult ...." are better
ways to respond to your child than beginning sentences with "You should," or "If I were you," or
"When I was your age we didn't...." Speaking for oneself sounds thoughtful and is less likely to
be considered a lecture or an automatic response.
* If your child tells you something you don't want to hear, don't ignore the statement
Don't offer advice in response to every statement your child makes. It is better to listen carefully
to what is being said and try to understand the real feelings behind the words.
Make sure you understand what your child means. Repeat things to your child for
The preceding sections have outlined some general guidelines for talking with children
about alcohol and other drugs. We can make these messages more effective by taking into
account the knowledge youngsters already have and their readiness to learn new information at
different ages.

Drug education may seem unnecessary for preschoolers, but the attitudes and habits
learned early can have an important bearing on the decisions children make later. Three- and
four-year-olds are not yet ready to learn complex facts about alcohol and other drugs, but they
can learn the decision-making and problem-solving skills that they will need to refuse alcohol
and other drugs later. Remember that children in this age group are not able to listen quietly for
very long; they are more interested in doing things for themselves.
It's tempting for busy parents to do things for young children because it's quicker and
easier. With a little planning, however, you can use the learn-by-doing approach to teach your
preschooler how to make decisions. Let your child pick from a range of options that are
acceptable to you. When the choice is made, make sure your child sticks with it.

Suggested Activities
* Set aside regular times when you can give your child your full attention. Playing together,
reading a book, and taking a walk are special times that help to build strong bonds of trust and
affection between you and your child.
* Point out to your child poisonous and harmful substances that can be found in your home.
Household products such as bleach, lye, and furniture polish all have warning labels that you can
read to your child. Keep all household products that could harm a small child away from the
place you store foods and out of your child's reach.
* Explain how medicine can be harmful if used incorrectly. Teach your child not to take anything
from a medicine bottle unless you give it to the child yourself or specify someone else who can
give it, such as a baby-sitter or grandparent.
* Explain why children need good food and should put only good things into their bodies. Have
your child name several good foods that he or she eats regularly, and explain how those foods
will make your child strong and healthy.
* Provide guidelines that teach your child what kind of behavior you expect. Teach your child
the basic rules of how to get along with other children: Play fair. Share toys. Tell the truth. Treat
others the way you want them to treat you.
* Encourage your child to follow instructions. For example, invite your child to help you cook;
following a recipe--measuring ingredients, cracking eggs, kneading dough--can help children
have fun while learning about step-by-step procedures. Playing simple board games with your
child can give practice in following instructions and rules.
* Take advantage of opportunities to use play as a way to help your child handle frustrating
situations and solve simple problems. A tower of blocks that continuously collapses can drive a
child to tears. You can offer a few suggestions to keep the tower up, but at the same time you
should ask your child what he or she thinks is the best way to do it. Turning a bad situation into a
success reinforces a child's self-confidence.
* To help your child learn decision making in a practical way, lay out some clothing from which
the child can select what he or she wishes to wear. Don't worry if the choices don't quite match.
Let your child know that you think he or she is able to make good decisions.

Five- to nine-year-olds usually feel good about themselves. They like growing up, and
they generally like school and all the new opportunities it provides. They still think and learn
primarily by experience, and they don't have a good understanding of things that will happen in
the future. Fact and fantasy mingle easily; the world is seen as the child wishes it to be, and not
as it actually is. Children of this age need rules to guide their behavior and information to make
good choices and decisions.
Discussions about alcohol and other drugs must be in the here and now, and `related to
people and events the child knows about. Most children are very interested in how their bodies
work, so discussions should focus on maintaining good health and avoiding things that might
harm the body

Adults are very important both as teachers and as role models. Children are generally
trusting, and they believe that the decisions adults make for them are right. Helping your child
know whom to trust is important. They need to understand that just because someone tells them
to do something, it is not always right to do it By the end of the third grade, your child should
-- what an illicit drug is, why it is illegal, what it looks like, and what harm it can do:
-- how foods, poisons, medicines, and illicit drugs differ;
-- how medicines may help during illness, when prescribed by a doctor and administered by a
responsible adult, but also how medicines are drugs that can be harmful if misused:
-- why it is important to avoid unknown and possibly dangerous objects, containers, and
-- which adults, both at school and outside, you want your child to rely on for answers to
questions or help in an emergency;
-- which foods are nutritious and why exercise is important;
-- what the school and home rules are about alcohol and other drug use; and
-- how using alcohol and other drugs is illegal for all children.

Suggested Activities
Children in this age group need to understand the family's rules. You can explain the need for
rules by talking about traffic safety rules and school rules with which your child is already
Emphasize the importance of good health by talking about things people do to stay healthy, such
as brushing teeth after each meal, washing hands, eating good foods, getting plenty of rest and
sleep. You can use this discussion to contrast the harmful things that people do, such as taking
drugs, smoking, or drinking to excess.
Discuss how TV advertisers try to persuade children to buy their products, including high
sugar/additives-loaded cereals, candy bars, and toys named after characters in cartoon shows that
children find appealing.
Discuss illnesses with which your child is familiar and for which prescription drugs are often
necessary. Many children have had strep throat, ear infections, flu, and colds. Discussing such
illnesses can help your child understand the difference between medicine and illicit drugs.
Practice ways to say no with your child. Describe situations that may make your child feel
uncomfortable: being invited to ride a bike where you do not allow your child to go, for example,
or being offered medicine or other unfamiliar substances. Give your child some responses to use
in these situations.
Develop a "helpers" file of people your child can rely on. Put together a phone list of relatives,
family friends, neighbors, teachers, religious leaders, and the police and fire departments.
Illustrate the list with photos. Talk with your child about the kind of help each person on the list
could provide in case of various unexpected situations, such as being approached by strangers or
losing a house key.

This is a period of slowed physical growth when typically a lot of energy goes into
learning. Children 10 to 12 years old love to learn facts, especially strange ones, and they want to
know how things work and what sources of information are available to them. Friends--a single
best friend or a group of friends--become very important. What children this age are interested in
or will be committed to often is determined by what the group thinks. Children's self-image is
determined in part by the extent to which they are accepted by peers, especially popular peers. As
a result, a lot of "followers" are unable to make independent decisions and choices.

This age is perhaps the most important time for parents to focus on increased efforts at
drug prevention. These late elementary school years are crucial to decisions about the use of
alcohol and other drugs. The greatest risk for starting to smoke comes in the sixth and seventh
grades. Research shows that the earlier youngsters begin to use alcohol and other drugs, the more
likely they are to have real trouble.
Your child will need a clear no-use message, factual information, and strong motivation
to resist pressures to try alcohol and other drugs and to reinforce the determination to remain
drug free. Appropriate new information could include:

-- ways to identify specific drugs, including alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalants, and cocaine
in their various forms;
-- the long- and short-term effects and consequences of use;
-- the effects of drugs on different parts of the body, and the reasons why drugs are especially
dangerous for growing bodies; and
-- the consequences of alcohol and other illegal drug use to the family, society, and the user.

Suggested Activities
Create special times when you are available to talk to your child. Try to give your child
undivided attention. A walk together, dinner in a quiet place, or a visit to the ice cream parlor
after a movie are some ways to make talking together a little easier.
Encourage your child to participate in wholesome activities that will allow the child to form new
friendships and have fun. Sports, Scouts, religious-sponsored youth programs, and community-
sponsored youth organizations are excellent ways for children to meet others of their own age.
Teach your child to be aware of how drugs and alcohol are promoted. Discuss how children are
bombarded with messages--from TV, song lyrics, billboards, and advertisements--that using
alcohol and other drugs is very glamorous. Clearly separate the myths from the realities of
alcohol and other drug use.
Continue to practice ways to say no with your child, emphasizing ways to refuse alcohol and
other drugs. It is not uncommon for sixth graders to be offered beer and cigarettes and to know
other children who smoke and drink alcohol.
Encourage your child to join a local anti-drug club or peer assistance group that encourages drug-
free activities.
Ask your child to scan the morning newspaper and to circle any article that has to do with
alcohol and other drug use. No doubt there will be articles about drug-related murders, strife in
other countries due to drug trafficking, and alcohol-related auto accidents. Talk with your child
about the tremendous loss of lives and resources because of the use of alcohol and other drugs.
Make friends with the parents of your child's friends so that you can reinforce one another's
efforts in teaching good personal and social habits. A neighborhood social gathering, sporting
event, or school assembly are good places to meet.
Join with other parents in providing supervised activities for young people to limit "free time,"
which often leads to experimentation with alcohol and other drugs.

During the early teens "fitting in" with friends is a controlling influence. In some ways,
the onset of puberty is like a "rebirth." Children want and need to let go of the past and to find
their own unique identity. This often means letting go of old friendships and ties with teachers
and other adults, as well as old ways of doing things. The decision-making and problem- solving
methods that they learned as young children are still helpful, but young teens will be making new
decisions based on new information and new goals.
Young people this age can begin to deal with abstractions and the future. They
understand that their actions have consequences, and they know how their behavior affects
others. They sometimes have a shaky self-image: they are not sure whether they are growing and
changing adequately, they are often in conflict with adults, they are not sure where they are
headed, and they tend to see themselves as not "okay." Strong emotional support and a good
model of adult behavior are particularly important now.
Young people who use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs typically begin before leaving
the ninth grade. Be sure that family discussions about drugs emphasize the immediate,
unpleasant effects of alcohol and other drug use. Telling junior high school students who are
smoking that they will get lung cancer or heart disease in several decades is less likely to make
an impression than talking about bad breath, stained teeth and fingers, and burned clothing.
Many young people use drugs because their friends use drugs. A large portion of your prevention
efforts during these years should be spent reinforcing your child's motivation to avoid alcohol
and other drugs. Here are some important steps:
Counteract peer influence with parent influence. Reinforce your no-alcohol/no-drug-use rules
and expectations so that your child clearly understands that drinking and using drugs are
unacceptable and illegal. Children may argue that "everyone is doing it" and not experiencing
any harmful effects. Inform your child that alcohol and other drug use is illegal for children and
that "everyone is not doing it." Emphasize how unpredictable the effects of alcohol and other
drugs can be, so that although many drug users may appear to function properly, drug use is
extremely risky, and all it takes is one bad experience to change a life.
Get to know your child's friends and their parents. Meet your child's friends. Invite them to your
home frequently. Share your expectations about behavior with other parents. Work together to
develop a set of rules about curfews, unchaperoned parties, and other social activities.
Monitor your child's whereabouts. If your child is at "a friend's house," be sure that you know the
friend and the parents. If your child is at the movies, be sure you know what film is playing and
at which theater. Last-minute changes in plans, such as visiting a different friend or going to a
different movie, should not be permitted unless the child checks with Mom, Dad, or another
designated adult

By the end of ninth grade your child should know:
-- the characteristics and chemical nature of specific drugs and drug interactions;
-- the physiology of drug effects on the circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive
-- the stages of chemical dependency and their unpredictability from person to person;
-- the ways that drug use affects activities requiring motor coordination, such as driving a car or
participating in sports; and
-- family history, particularly if alcoholism or other drug addiction has been a problem.

Suggested Activities
Continue to practice ways to say no with your child. Teach your child to recognize problem
situations, such as being at a house where no adults are present and young people are smoking or
drinking beer. Make up situations in which your child may be asked to try alcohol and other
drugs and let the child practice saying no using the steps outlined. Try many variations until you
are confident that your child knows how to say no.
Children this age are very concerned about how others see them. You can help your child
develop a positive self-image by making sure that the child looks good and feels healthy. In
addition to providing well-balanced meals, keep your refrigerator and pantry stocked with
appealing alternatives to junk food.
Continue to spend private time with your child to discuss what your child feels is important in
his or her life right now. Your child's fears about emerging sexuality, appearing different from
friends, and going on to high school are real problems and deserve your concern and attention.
Periodically review and update, with your child's participation, your house rules and your child's
responsibilities regarding chores, homework, time limit on TV watching, and the curfew on
school and weekend nights. Discuss these questions with your child: Are the rules fair and the
consequences appropriate? Is it time to switch to some new chores? Should there be fewer or
different chores because of added homework assignments or after- school activities? Should the
curfew be adjusted?
Talk with your child about friendship. Make the point that true friends do not ask each other to
do things they know are wrong and risk harm to themselves, their friends, or their families.
Plan supervised parties or other activities for your child in your home which reflect a no
alcohol/no-drug-use rule. For example, have your child invite friends to share a pizza and watch

GRADES 10-12
High school students are future-oriented and can engage in abstract thinking. They have
an increasingly realistic understanding of adults. Young people therefore want adults to discuss
their concerns and the ways they solve problems and make decisions. You may have a
tremendous new opportunity to help your children at this age. At the same time, the teenagers
continue to be group-orientated, and belonging to the group motivates much of their behavior
and actions. During these years, young people often develop a broader outlook and become more
interested in the welfare of others.
By the end of high school, your child should understand:

-- both the immediate and long-term physical effects of specific drugs;
-- the possibly fatal effects of combining drugs;
-- the relationship of drug use to other diseases and disabilities;
-- the effects of alcohol and other drugs on the fetus during pregnancy;
-- the fact that drug use is not a victimless crime;
-- the effects and possible consequences of operating equipment while using alcohol and other
-- the impact that drug use has on society; and
-- the extent of community intervention resources

You may want to focus on the potential long-term effects of alcohol and other drugs
during these years: drugs can ruin your teen's chances of getting into college, being accepted by
the military, or being hired for certain jobs. Your teen may also be impressed by the importance
of being seen as a good role model for a younger brother or sister.
Although young people long for independence it is particularly important to keep them
involved in the family and family activities. They should join the rest of the family for dinner
regularly, be part of family vacations, and remain part of family routines.

Suggested Activities
Continue to talk with your teenager about alcohol and other drug use. Chances are your teen has
friends who use alcohol and other drugs or knows people who do. Talk about how alcohol and
other drug use threatens lives and may limit opportunities for the future.
Plan strategies to limit your teen's unsupervised hours at home, while you are at work.
Researchers have found that lunch time and 3:00 - 6:00 p.m. are periods teenagers are likely to
experiment with alcohol and other drugs.
Encourage your teenager to work on behalf of a drug prevention program by being trained as a
volunteer to answer hot-line calls or as a peer counselor.
Talk with your teenager about joining a sports club, drama club, arts and crafts center, or dance
studio or about volunteering to work for a church group or community organization. The busier
your teenager is, the less likely he or she is to be bored and to seek an outlet in alcohol or other
drugs. Volunteer with your teenager, if you have time.
Plan alcohol- and drug-free activities with other families during school vacations and major
holidays, which can be high- risk idle times for teens.
Make sure your teen has access to up-to-date information on alcohol and other drugs and their
effects. Make an effort to be informed about any new drugs that are popular, and know their
effects. (For suggested reading, see the resources section at the end of this booklet.)
Cooperate with other parents to make sure that the parties and social events your teenager attends
are alcohol- and drug-free. Some families choose to draw up a contract holding adults
responsible for parties given in their homes; the contract specifies that all parties will be
supervised and that there is to be no use of alcohol or other drugs. (See "Safe Homes" in the
resource section.)
Help plan community-sponsored drug-free activities such as alcohol and drug-free dances and
other recreational activities such as "midnight basketball."
Talk with your teenager about the future. Discuss your expectations and your teenager's
ambitions. Collect college or vocational catalogs for your teenager, and discuss different
educational and career options. Plan a family outing to local colleges and universities.
Young people use drugs for many reasons that have to do with how they feel about
themselves, how they get along with others, and how they live. No one factor determines who
will use drugs and who will not, but here are some predictors:
low grades or poor school performance;
aggressive, rebellious behavior;
excessive influence by peers;
lack of parental support and guidance; and
behavior problems at an early age.
Being alert to the signs of alcohol and other drug use requires a keen eye. It is sometimes
hard to know the difference between normal teenage behavior and behavior caused by drugs.
Changes that are extreme or that last for more than a few days may signal drug use. Consider the
following questions:
* Does your child seem withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming?
* Has your child become hostile and uncooperative?
" Have your child's relationships with other family members deteriorated?
* Has your child dropped his old friends?
* Is your child no longer doing well in school-- grades slipping, attendance irregular?
* Has your child lost interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite activities?
* Have your child's eating or sleeping patterns changed?
Positive answers to any of these questions can indicate alcohol or other drug use.
However, these signs may also apply to a child who is not using drugs but who may be having
other problems at school or in the family. If you are in doubt, get help. Have your family doctor
or local clinic examine your child to rule out illness or other physical problems.
Watch for signs of drugs and drug paraphernalia as well. Possession of common items
such as pipes, rolling papers, small medicine bottles, eye drops, or butane lighters may signal that
your child is using drugs.
Even when the signs are clearer, usually after the child has been using drugs for a time,
parents sometimes do not want to admit that their child could have a problem. Anger,
resentment, guilt, and a sense of failure as parents are common reactions.
If your child is using drugs, it is important to avoid blaming yourself for the problem and
to get whatever help is needed to stop it. The earlier a drug problem is detected and faced, the
more likely it is that your child can be helped.
First, do not confront a child who is under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, but
wait until the child is sober. Then discuss your suspicions with your child calmly and
objectively. Bring in other members of the family to help, if necessary.
Second, impose whatever discipline your family has decided on for violating the rules
and stick to it. Don't relent because the youngster promises never to do it again.

Many young people lie about their alcohol and drug use. If you think your child is not
being truthful and the evidence is pretty strong, you may wish to have your child evaluated by a
health professional experienced in diagnosing adolescents with alcohol- and drug-related

If your child has developed a pattern of drug use or has engaged in heavy use, you will
probably need help to intervene. If you do not know about drug treatment programs in your area,
call your doctor, local hospital, or county mental health society for a referral. Your school district
should have a substance abuse coordinator or a counselor who can refer you to treatment
programs, too. Parents whose children have been through treatment programs can also provide
The most promising drug prevention programs are those in which parents, students,
schools, and communities join together to send a firm, clear message that the use of alcohol and
other drugs will not be tolerated.

The development of strong policies that spell out rules governing use, possession, and
sale of alcohol and other drugs is a key part of any school-based prevention program. Learn what
your school's policies are and actively support them. If your school has no policy, work with
teachers, administrators, and community members to develop one. Good school policies typically
specify what constitutes an alcohol or other drug offense, spell out the consequences for violating
the policy, describe procedures for handling violations, and build community support for the
Visit your child's school and learn how drug education is being taught. Are the faculty
members trained to teach about alcohol and other drug use? Is drug education a regular part of
the curriculum or limited to a special week? Is it taught through the health class, or do all
teachers incorporate drug education into their subject area? Do children in every grade receive
drug education, or is it limited to selected grades? Is there a component for parents?
If your school has an active program to prevent drug use, ask to see the materials that are
being used. Do they contain a clear message that alcohol and other drug use is wrong and
harmful? Is the information accurate and up-to-date? Does the school have referral sources for
students who need special help

Let other parents know about the school's policies through meetings of the parent-teacher
organization. At least one meeting each year should be devoted to issues of alcohol and other
drug use. Knowledgeable local physicians and pharmacists can be invited to discuss how drugs
affect the growth and development of children, police officers can outline the scope and severity
of the drug problem in your community, and substance abuse counselors can discuss symptoms
of alcohol and other drug use and treatment options.

Help your child to grow up alcohol and drug free by supporting community efforts to
give young people healthy alternatives. Alcohol and drug-free proms and other school-based
celebrations are growing in popularity around the country. You can help to organize such events,
solicit contributions, and serve as a chaperon.
Local businesses are also an excellent source of support for alternative activities such as
athletic teams and part-time jobs. Shops and restaurants in one community in Texas, for example,
now offer discounts to young people who test negative for drugs in a voluntary urinalysis.

Other parents can be valuable allies in your effort to keep your child drug free. Get to
know the parents of your child's friends. Share expectations about behavior and develop a set of
mutually agreed upon rules about such things as curfews, unchaperoned parties, and places that
are off-limits. Helping youngsters stay out of trouble is easier when rules of conduct are clearly
known and widely shared.
Build a network of other adults with whom you can talk. Join a parent organization in
your community, or talk informally with your friends about common concerns in rearing
children. Sharing experiences can provide insights that help you deal with your child's behavior.
It also helps to know that other parents have faced similar situations

Despite the grim stories that fill our newspapers and dominate the evening news, most
young people do not use illicit drugs, they do not approve of drug use by their friends, and they
share their parents' concern about the dangers posed by drugs. Successful prevention efforts,
whether in a family, school, or community setting, have many elements in common: a concern
for the welfare and well being of young people, dedicated adults who are willing to devote their
time and energy, and an unwavering commitment to being drug free.
That commitment led a small group of parents in Bowling Green, Kentucky, to form
Bowling Green Parents for Drug-Free Youth. The organization has worked closely with the local
schools and community to provide training and education for all members of the community, and
it has raised more than $35,000 to help finance its efforts. Questionnaires administered to
students in grades 7-12 for 6 consecutive years have shown a steady decline in the use of alcohol
and other drugs.
Gall Amato, president of the Bowling Green Parents for Drug- Free Youth, speaks
persuasively about why parents must be involved in helping to prevent alcohol and other drug
“People often ask me why I think parents are the answer, and I think it's because we have
the most to lose. Schools can help, churches can help, law enforcement can help, but no one can
replace the family. Being involved with drug and alcohol prevention lets our children know that
we care. It strengthens the family and helps us to be the kind of parents our children need us to
A similar commitment leads parents of students in Commodore Stockton Skills School in
Stockton, California, to donate more than 400 volunteer hours each month helping in the
classrooms. Last year a family picnic held during Red Ribbon Week, a national drug awareness
week, drew 500 participants for a day of games and activities focused on prevention of drug use

In addition to helping in the classroom, Stockton parents work to maintain discipline, to
reinforce students' respect for other people, and to foster personal responsibility at home.
As a result, behavioral problems in the school are infrequent, attendance is high, and area
police report juvenile drug arrests from every school in the city except Commodore Stockton.
Successful efforts to rid a neighborhood of drugs are often joint efforts. Two years ago in
New Haven, Connecticut, the residents of six housing projects joined forces to solve a
neighborhood problem--drugs. The residents were afraid for the safety of their children and sick
of the murders and other nightly violence related to drug deals.
Representing more than 1,400 families from the six projects, the group drafted an action
plan to rid the neighborhood of drugs. The residents asked the local police to conduct "sting"
operations periodically. Members of the New Haven news media have been invited to the
project, where residents speak openly about the problems they encounter. The residents have
invited local community groups and the Greater New Haven Labor Council to join in the fight. In
addition, the mayor has become directly involved in their struggle.

One member, speaking on behalf of the residents, stated its main objective:
"We are banding together to stop this madness so that we can have a peaceful and livable
neighborhood and community." Today, drug sales have decreased, and members of the
community feel safer and more hopeful about the future.

Alcohol consumption causes a number of changes in behavior. Even low doses
significantly impair the judgment and coordination required to drive a car safely. Low to
moderate doses of alcohol can increase the incidence of a variety of aggressive acts, including
spouse and child abuse. Moderate to high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in higher
mental functions, severely altering a person's ability to learn and remember information. Very
high doses cause respiratory depression and death

Continued use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden cessation of alcohol intake is
likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and
convulsions. Long-term effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol, especially when
combined with poor nutrition, can lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and
the liver. In addition, mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with
fetal alcohol syndrome. These infants may suffer from mental retardation and other irreversible
physical abnormalities. In addition, research indicates that children of alcoholic parents are at
greater risk than other children of becoming alcoholics.

The smoking of tobacco products is the chief avoidable cause of death in our society.
Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to contract heart disease some 170,000 die each year
from smoking-related coronary heart disease. Lung, larynx, esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, and
kidney cancers also strike smokers at increased rates. Some 30 percent of cancer deaths (130,000
per year) are linked to smoking.
Chronic, obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are 10 times more
likely to occur among smokers than among nonsmokers.

Smoking during pregnancy also poses serious risks. Spontaneous abortion, pre-term birth,
low birth weights, and fetal and infant deaths are all more likely to occur when the pregnant
woman is a smoker.
Cigarette smoke contains some 4,000 chemicals, several of which are known carcinogens.
Perhaps the most dangerous substance in tobacco smoke is nicotine. Nicotine is the substance
that reinforces and strengthens the desire to smoke. Because nicotine is highly addictive, addicts
find it very difficult to stop smoking. Of 1,000 typical smokers, fewer than 20 percent succeed in
stopping on the first try

All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several regularly
observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial increase in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, a
dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.
Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and comprehension, alter sense
of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination, such as
driving a car. Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new
information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.
Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as
long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke
contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco smoke. Long-term users of cannabis may
develop psychological dependence and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug
can become the center of their lives.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How it is used:

Marijuana Pot, Reefer, Dope, like dried parsley smoked or Ganja
Grass, Weed, with stems and/or eaten Mary
Jane, Sinsemilla, seeds; rolled into Bum Bud,
or Dank cigarettes

Tetrahydro- THC Soft gelatin Taken
cannabinol capsules orally

Hashish Hash Brown or black Smoked or
cakes or balls eaten

Hashish Hash Oil Concentrated syrupy Smoked mixed with
liquid varying in tobacco
color from clear
to black

The immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing, coughing,
nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also
decrease the heart and respiratory rates and impair judgment. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid
pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in
hepatitis or brain damage.
Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short time, may result in
disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can
cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous
system to the point that breathing stops.
Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and muscle fatigue.
Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the nervous system.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Nitrous Oxide
Laughing gas Small 8-gram Vapors inhaled
or Whippets metal cylinder sold
with a balloon or
pipe propellant for
whipped cream in
aerosol spray can

Amyl- Poppers or clear yellowish Vapors
Nitrite Snappers liquids in ampules inhaled

Butyl- Rush, Bolt, Bullet In small bottles Vapors inhaled
Nitrite Locker Room, and

Chloro- Aerosol sprays or Aerosol paint cans Vapors inhaled
hydro cleaning fluids

Hydro Solvents Cans of aerosol Vapors
carbons propellants, gasoline inhaled
glue, paint thinne

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects include dilated
pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional
use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the
nose. Injecting cocaine with contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other
diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death
or injury from fire or explosion.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt within 10 seconds.
The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure,
insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure. The use of cocaine can
cause death by cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:

Cocaine Coke, Snow, Nose candy White crystalline Inhaled, injected
Flake, Blow, Big C, powder
Lady White, and Snowbirds

Crack Crack, rock, freebase White to tan pellets Smoked
crystalline rocks that
look like soap

Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure,
dilated pupils, and decreased appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache,
blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or
irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine
injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or
heart failure

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless, anxious, and moody.
Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a long
period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions,
and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:

Amphetamines Capsules, Pills Taken orally
Speed, Uppers, Ups
Black beauties, Pep tablets injected, inhaled
pills, Copilots,
Bumblebees, Hearts,
Benzedrine, Dexedrine,
Footballs, and

Methamphetamines Crank, Crystal meth, White power, pills Taken
Crystal methedrine, rock that resembles orally,
and Speed block of paraffin injected,


Additional Ritalin, Cylert, Pills or capsules Taken orally,
Stimulants Preludin, Didrex, injected
Pre-State, Voranil,
Sandrex, and Plegine

The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small
amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but larger doses can cause slurred speech,
staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma,
and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs,
increasing the risks

Regular use of depressants over time can result in physical and psychological addiction.
People who suddenly stop taking large doses can experience withdrawal symptoms, including
anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, and death. Babies born to mothers who abuse
depressants may also be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms
shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Barbiturates Downers, Barbs, Blue red, yellow, Taken orally
Devils, Red Devils, blue, or red
Yellow Jacket, Yellows, and blue cap
Nembutal, Tuinals, capsules
Seconal, and Amytal

Methaqualone Quaaludes, Ludes, Tablets Taken orally

Tranquilizers Valium, Librium, Tablets or capsules Taken orally
Miltown, Serax,
Equanil, Miltown,
and Tranxene

Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the section of the brain
that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors,
violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted injuries. The effects of PCP vary, but users
frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed
down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.
In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience
hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, as well as heart and lung failure

Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and hallucinations. The
physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and
blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors. The user may experience panic,
confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even
when use has ceased.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:

Phencyclidine PCP, Hog, Angel Dust Liquid, white Taken orally,
boat, Lovely, Killer crystalline injected,
weed powder, pills smoked
capsules (sprayed)
on joints,

Lysergic LSD, Acid, Microdot Colored tablets Taken orally
acid White lighting, blue blotter paper licked off
diethylamide heaven, and Sugar clear liquid paper gelatin
cubes thin squares of and liquid
gelatin can be put in

Mescaline Mesc, Buttons, Hard brown Discs--chewed
and Cactus discs, tablets swallowed, or
capsules smoked
Tablets and capsules-
taken orally

Psilocybin Magic Fresh or Chewed and
Mushrooms, dried swallowed
'shrooms mushrooms
Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed by drowsiness,
nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An
overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and
possible death.
Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of
contaminated syringes may result in disease such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction
in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe
withdrawal symptoms.

Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Heroin Smack, Horse, Mud, White to Injected,
Brown sugar, junk, dark-brown smoked, or
black tar, and Big H powder or inhaled

Codeine Empirin compound with Dark liquid Taken orally,
codeine, Tylenol with varying in injected
codeine, Codeine in thickness,
cough medicine capsules,

Morphine Pectoral syrup White Taken orally,
crystals, injected, or
hypodermic smoked
needles, or

Opium Paregoric, Dover's Dark brown Smoked, eaten
powder, Parepectolin chunks, or injected

Meperidine Pethidine, Demerol, White powder Taken orally,
Mepergan solution, injected

Other Percocet, Percodan, Tables or Taken orally,
Narcotics Tussionex, Fentanyl, capsules injected
Darvon, Talwin, and

Illegal drugs are defined in the terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these
legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to
produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger
than the drugs they are designed to imitate.
The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's disease:
uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage.
Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or
sweating, and faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little
as one dose can cause brain damage The analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations,
and impaired perception.


Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex
hormone testosterone. Developed in the 1930's, steroids are seldom prescribed by physicians
today. Current legitimate medical uses are limited to certain kinds of anemia, severe burns, and
some types of breast cancer.
Taken in combination with a program of muscle-building exercise and diet, steroids may
contribute to increases in body weight and muscular strength. Steroid users subject themselves to
more than 70 side effects ranging in severity from liver cancer to acne and including
psychological as well as physical reactions. The liver and cardiovascular and reproductive
systems are most seriously affected by steroid use. In males, use can cause withered testicles,
sterility, and impotence. In females, irreversible masculine traits can develop along with breast
reduction and sterility. Psychological effects in both sexes include very aggressive behavior
known as "road rage" and depression. While some side effects appear quickly, others, such as
heart attacks and strokes, may not show up for years.
Signs of steroid use include quick weight and muscle gains (when used in a weight
training program); aggressiveness and combativeness; jaundice; purple or red spots on the body;
swelling of feet and lower legs; trembling; unexplained darkening of the skin; and persistent
unpleasant breath odor.

The authors do not endorse any private or commercial products or services, or products or
services not affiliated with the Federal Government. The sources of information listed here are
intended only as a partial listing of the resources that are available to readers of this booklet.
Readers are encouraged to research and inform themselves of the products or services, relating to
drug and alcohol abuse, that are available to them.

Many hospitals, community colleges, and other organizations offer classes for parents
that are designed to improve communication and understanding between parents and children.
Consult your local library, school, or community service organization for more information.
Through its Drug Alliance, the Federal Domestic Volunteer Agency promotes community based,
volunteer drug use prevention projects for at-risk youth and the elderly. (See your telephone Blue
Alcoholics Anonymous.
This organization is a fellowship of men and women who share their experiences to solve a
common problem (alcoholism) and to help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. The organization is
worldwide. (See your telephone White Pages.)
Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters.
Al-Anon was established as a resource for family members and friends of alcoholics. It is a free,
nonprofessional, worldwide organization with more than 30,000 groups. (See your telephone
White Pages.)
American Council for Drug Education.
This organization provides information on drug use, develops media campaigns, reviews
scientific findings, publishes books and a newsletter, and offers films and curriculum materials
for preteens. 204 Monroe Street, Rockville, MD 20850. Telephone 1-800488 DRUG/(301) 294-
Chemical People Project.
The project supplies information in the form of tapes, literature, and seminars. The Public
Television Outreach Alliance, c/o WQED-TV, 4802 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Telephone (412) 391-0900.

Families Anonymous, Inc.
This worldwide organization offers a 12-step, self-help program for families and friends of
people with behavioral problems usually associated with drug abuse. The organization is similar
in structure to Alcoholics Anonymous. P. O. Box 528, Van Nuys, CA 91408. Telephone (818)
Families in Action National Drug Information Center.
This organization publishes Drug Abuse Update, a quarterly journal of news and information for
persons interested in drug prevention. $25 for four issues. 2296 Henderson Mill Road, Suite 204,
Atlanta, GA 30345. Telephone (404) 934-6364.
Hazelden Foundation.
This foundation distributes educational materials and self-help literature for participants in 12-
step recovery programs and for the professionals who work in the field. Pleasant Valley Road,
Box 176, Center City, MN 55012-0176. Telephone 1-800-328 9000.
Institute on Black Chemical Abuse.
This institute provides training and technical assistance to programs that want to serve African-
American/ black clients and others of color more effectively. 2614 Nicollet Avenue,
Minneapolis, MN 55408. Telephone (612) 871-7878.
"Just Say No" Clubs.
These clubs provide support and positive peer reinforcement to youngsters through workshops,
seminars, newsletters, and a variety of activities. 1777 North California Boulevard, Suite 200,
Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Telephone 1-800-258 2766/(415) 939-6666.
Nar-Anon Family Group Headquarters.
This organization operates in a manner similar to A1 Anon and supports people who have friends
or family members with drug problems. World Service Office, P. O. Box 2562, Palos Verdes
Peninsula, CA 90274. Telephone (213) 547-5800.

Narcotics Anonymous.
Similar to Alcoholics Anonymous, this program is a fellowship of men and women who meet to
help one another with their drug dependency problems. World Service Office, P. O. Box 9999,
Van Nuys, CA 91409. Telephone (818) 780- 3951. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug
NCADI is a resource for alcohol and other drug information. It carries a wide variety of
publications dealing with alcohol and other drug abuse. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.
Telephone 1-800-SAY NOTO/(301) 468-2600.
National Council on Alcoholism, Inc.
This national voluntary health agency provides information about alcoholism and alcohol
problems through more than 300 local affiliates. 12 West 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.
Telephone (212) 206-6770. National Crime Prevention Council. This organization works to
prevent crime and drug use in many ways, including developing materials (audio visual,
reproducible brochures, and other publications) for parents and children. 1700 K Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20006. Telephone (202) 466-NCPC.
National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth, Inc.
This organization sponsors the National Red Ribbon Campaign to reduce the demand for drugs
and the Responsible Educated Adolescents Can Help (REACH) program designed to educate
junior and senior high school students about drug abuse. P. O. Box 3878, St. Louis, MO 63122.
Telephone (314) 968-1322.
National PTA Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project.
Offers kits, brochures, posters, and other publications on alcohol and other drugs for parents,
teachers, and PTA organizations. 700 North Rush Street, Chicago, IL 60611. Telephone (312)

Safe Homes.
This national organization encourages parents to sign a contract stipulating that when parties are
held in one another's homes they will adhere to a strict no-alcohol/no drug- use rule. P. O. Box
702, Livingston, NJ 07039.
Tough love.
This national self-help group for parents, children, and communities emphasizes cooperation,
personal initiative, and action. It publishes a newsletter, brochures, and books, and it holds
workshops. P. O. Box 1069, Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone 1-800 333-1069/(215) 348-

A round-the-clock information and referral service. Recovering cocaine-addict counselors answer
the phones, offer guidance, and refer drug users and parents to local public and private treatment
centers and family learning centers.
The National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., Is a national nonprofit organization that combats
alcoholism, other drug addictions, and related problems. The council also provides referral
services to families and individuals seeking help with alcoholism or other drug problems.
NIDA Hotline is a confidential information and referral line that directs callers to cocaine abuse
treatment centers in the local community. Free materials on drug abuse are also distributed in
response to inquiries.

Many of the following titles are available at and free on line orYouTube.

Drug-Free Kids: A Parents' Guide..
Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals.
Peer Pressure Reversal, by Sharon Scott.
Pot Safari, by Peggy Mann.
Preparing for the Drug-Free Years: A Family Activity Book, by J. David Hawkins, et al.
Team Up for Drug Prevention with America's Young Athletes.
Ten Steps To Help Your Child Say "No": A Parent's Guide.
The Fact Is...Hispanic Parents Can Help Their Children Avoid Alcohol and Other Drug
The Fact Is...You Can Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems Among Elementary School
The Fact Is...You Can Help Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Secondary School
Young Children and Drugs: What Parents Can Do. ( Brochures)
What Works: Schools Without Drugs.

A Little More About Alcohol. Alcohol Research Information Service.
Alcohol: What It Is, What It Does, by Judith S. Seixas.
An Elephant in the Living Room: The Children's Book, by Marion H. Hyppo and Jill M.
Hastings. An illustrated workbook designed to help children from alcoholic homes understand that
alcoholism is a disease and that they are not alone in coping with its effects.
Buzzy's Rebound, by William Cosby and Jim Willoughby.
Kids and Alcohol: Get High On Life, by Jamie Rattray et al.
Kootch Talks About Alcoholism, by Mary Kay Schwandt.
The Sad Story of Mary Wanna or How Marijuana Harms You, by Peggy Mann.
Whiskers Says No to Drugs..

Chew or Snuff Is Real Bad Stuff.
Christy's Chance.
Different Like Me: A Book for Teens Who Worry About Their Parents' Use of Alcohol/Drugs.
Don't Lose a Friend to Drugs. This brochure offers practical advice to teenagers on
how to say "no" to drugs, how to help a friend who uses drugs, and how to initiate community
efforts to prevent drug use.

A Gift for Life: Helping Your Children Stay Alcohol and Drug Free.
Drug-Free Kids: A Parent's Guide.
Say NO! to Drugs: A Parent's Guide to Teaching Your Kids How To Grow Up Without Drugs
and Alcohol.

California Department of Justice. Drugs and Youth: An Information Guide for Parents and
Educators. Produced by the Crime Prevention Center of the Office of the Attorney General and
the Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement. Eraser, Mark W., J. David Hawkins and Matthew O.
"Parent Training for Delinquency Prevention," in Parent Training and Prevention Approaches.
New York: Haworth Press. Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M.
Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School Seniors. Ann
Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, McKay, Gordon D.
"Parents as Role Models" in Parenting as Prevention: Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Use
Problems in the Family. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Substance
Abuse and Prevention, Novello, Joseph R.
Raising Kids American Style. New York: A & W Publishers Inc., Stern, Alvera.

"Parents as Educators" in Parenting as Prevention: Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Use
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The author wishes to thank the following persons who provided comments on this publication:
Owen S. Bubel, Ph.D., Developmental and Psychological Services Associates
Lee Dogoloff, American Council on Drug Education
Charles Flatter, Ph.D., University of Maryland
J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., University of Washington
Elizabeth Kames, National Commission on Drug Free Schools
Michael Klitzner, Ph.D., Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Elizabeth S. McConnell, U.S. Attorney's Office, Tampa, FL
Anne Meyer, National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth
Cindi Moats, University of California, Irvine
Nelia Nadal, National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information
Katherine Powell, Alice Ferguson Foundation
Leo T. Powell, Powell and Associates
John Rosiak, National Crime Prevention Council
Sue Ruche, Families in Action
Mel Segal, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services
Nancy Simpson, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Department of Health and Human
Joyce Tobias, PANDAA
John Van Schoonhoven, Greenbelt Center Elementary School
Manya Unger, National Parent-Teacher Association

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covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher
is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other
professional advice. If legal advice or other professional
assistance is required, the services of a competent
professional person should be sought


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